Sealed vs Ported Loudspeakers: Which is Better? — Reviews and … by Steve Feinstein — last modified October 09, 2012 sealed vs ported - courtesy of dummies.com This is an age-old question: Which is better? There are certainly points on each side of the argument to consider. The debate of ported vs. sealed is intrinsically relevant and interesting, regardless of the arbitrary brand involved. When AR (Acoustic Research of Cambridge MA) introduced its original AR-1 acoustic suspension system in 1954 (see figure 1), it represented a quantum leap forward in the advancement of the reproduction of accurate, extended, low-distortion bass from a home loudspeaker. Noted reviewer Julian Hirsch remarked to me that he “knew the industry would never be the same” when he heard the AR-1’s bass.       Fig 1 AR-1 of 1954 Using the air trapped inside a sealed cabinet as the restoring force to the woofer cone resulted in a clean, linear response that was a step forward over what existed at the time and is still extremely competitive, even today. The AR-1 (and its famous descendants like the AR-3, -3a, and –LST) had an honest, measurably verified frequency response that was smooth and level down to a minus 3dB point of 35 Hz, with less than 5% THD at that frequency at a 20-watt drive level! There are simply no current passive loudspeakers using just a single bass driver in an enclosure well under 2 cu.ft. that could match that performance, even today. Not even the big Klipsch’s and Bozaks of the AR-1’s day could reach down to -3 dB at 35 Hz, with less than 5% THD, and they were 4-6-8 cu. ft. boxes. Sealed was a real advancement at the time. Without it, great bass from small boxes wouldn’t have existed, KLH, Advent and EPI wouldn’t have followed AR, and the whole stereo industry wouldn’t have exploded in sales like it did. The smaller box in the living room was icing on the cake (with stereo coming along in 1958, now you needed two speaker boxes), but that’s not what drove Ed Villchur to invent the AR-1. The advancement in bass performance drove AR, not “small box marketing,” as some revisionist historians have opined. Since then, however, as pure research—led in a major way by Dr. Thiele—and computer technology have advanced through the ensuing years, better ported designs are now possible, to the point where acoustic suspension’s pure performance advantages, such as low distortion and linear response (lack of “boominess”) are less apparent. In fact, the trade-offs in greater efficiency and lower 3dB down point often point in favor of a ported approach to system design. What has changed over the last 50+ years to essentially eliminate this gap? Several factors: 1. Quantifiable, known research and documentation of driver, port, and enclosure parameters, combined with the arrival of fast, economical computing in the commercial corporate environment. Specifically, the work of Thiele and Small in the ‘70’s removed much of the previous uncertainty regarding vented speaker design, and when coupled with the newly available inexpensive computing power, it meant that a new level of speaker design accuracy was achievable. In the 40’s, 50’s and 60’s, designing a vented speaker involved a lot of cut ‘n try guesswork. Designers had to be happy with ‘close enough’ or ‘in the ballpark,’ because the precise calculations needed for optimum outcomes hadn’t yet been done. Sealed designs were more forgiving by nature, and didn’t sound offensive or low-fi when they were less than perfectly done. A poorly done vented system, in contrast, could sound like a bad acoustical joke. There is a school of thought that points out that the T-S parameters are a bit of a simplification and therefore not fully accurate. A former KEF engineer states: “The small signal behavior of the loudspeaker can indeed be calculated to better than 95% accuracy from a measurement of the impedance of the loudspeaker. To do this one needs a good model of the equivalent circuit of the loudspeaker system, than do an impedance fit to this model. From that, the equivalent circuit can show the current flow through the components that represent the vent mass and the driver mass, and hence calculate their acceleration. This is the equivalent to the far field response, ignoring cabinet diffraction. One can then calculate the response from the impedance, measure the nearfield of vent plus driver, measure the inbox pressure, measure the farfield (in a well-calibrated chamber), and get all of these to agree to within 0.5dB down to 30Hz. However, if it is then converted to T/S parameters, due to them ignoring some of the driver behavior, the result will not be as accurate. Given that most people who measure the low frequency response do not have access to an anechoic chamber, this is actually a better way for them to get a reasonable idea of the LF performance.” 2. Computer-aided design programs. With today’s design programs, such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and 3D modeling programs such as Pro/Engineer, hundreds or thousands of driver/enclosure prototypes can be built in the virtual world of the computer before even one is actually built in the lab. A virtually unlimited number of iterations of magnet structure, cone shape, cone thickness, surround/spider compliance, voice coil length, coil winding, and pole plate variations can be tried and evaluated, before any physical parts are ever used. Different port lengths and geometries can be tried, vibrational analysis can be applied to ‘virtual’ cabinet walls to discover resonant modes and ascertain the structural integrity needed to optimize cabinet design within the cost target of the project. By the time a physical prototype is constructed, it is already most of the way there, with no big surprises.In contrast, in the good ‘ol days of the big bass reflex floorstander, after first trying differing port lengths/tunings, how many iterations and prototypes of the driver itself did they do? Two? Maybe three? Each time, hand-cutting a new pole piece, hand-winding a new voice coil, ordering and waiting for delivery of new magnets…. 3. Advanced manufacturing processes and materials. Today’s most advanced loudspeaker manufacturing plants utilize very close-tolerance procedures with advanced adhesives and materials technology that were simply unavailable a generation ago. It’s interesting to note a few basic factors that still fuel the sealed vs. ported issue, even today. At low frequencies, increasing SPL requirements demand ever-greater woofer excursion from a sealed system, which limits output and can increase distortion. In a properly tuned vented system, the port is providing the majority of low-frequency output, and the driver’s excursion—and hence its distortion—is very low. The upshot of all this is that today’s speakers can be much better performers than yesterday’s if the company and/or designer so chooses. The blueprint for excellent performance is better known than it was in years past, and a skilled designer with clear, worthy goals working with today’s best tools can achieve astonishing performance at incredibly modest prices. It’s less a question of whether to take Sealed Avenue or Ported Road, and more a question of what you’ve chosen as your destination. by Steve Feinstein — last modified October 09, 2012 Recent Forum Posts: Post Reply kaiser_soze posts on January 12, 2013 21:57 Something else that bugs me is that a lot of people are talking about Q as if a resonance is fully described by its Q. I find this very odd. Manifestly, a resonance is described by a particular frequency and by its Q. Merely by virtue of the fact that the driver itself is intrinsically an oscillator complete with a resonance, any bass reproduction is going to have a Q, but by no means does it make sense to suggest that the Q by itself determines the quality of the sound (even if distortion is not relevant or considered). For example, if you have two sealed enclosures and the system resonance for one occurs at 15 Hz while the system resonance for the other occurs at 70 Hz, they are not going to sound similar even Q is .5 for both, or .707 for both, or whatever. Given only that, it is apparent that it does not make sense to assess the difference in the sound of ported speakers vs. sealed speakers on the basis purely of Q. If a ported speaker is tuned to 10 Hz and and a sealed speaker has its system resonance at 75 Hz, you certainly are not going to be able to say anything definitive about the difference in the quality of sound between the two, from just the Q. kaiser_soze posts on January 12, 2013 21:42 This article covers some of the issues. But Mr. Feinstein started by asserting that the AR-1, now nearly fifty years old, was inherently superior to any modern speaker in terms of quantity and quality of deep bass. (I used to also believe this, passionately.) He then proceeds to explain why ported designs are so much better than they used to be, but hardly manages to identify any advantage of ported designs. You have to look hard for it. In the second page, he wrote, “My own feeling is that the lower 3dB down point of a small ported system and its higher efficiency are thought by many companies to be worthy advantages in today’s less critical, less hobbyist-driven audio environment.” He proceeds from there to talk about group delay, and even though he prefaced that by saying that he was about to contradict himself, he did not contradict himself at all. The group delay issue points very clearly to the superiority of acoustic-suspension speakers. Unless you believe that the world’s finest, modern speaker companies are concerned primarily with speaker efficiency and the -3dB point, to the detriment of bass quality, the article does not really explain the reason that most of the world’s finest, modern speaker companies prefer ported designs. It all comes down to one fact: cone excursion is vastly lower with ported designs than with sealed, acoustic suspension enclosures. This translates in a rather immediate way to reduced non-linear distortion in the deep bass. With the acoustic suspension approach, the strategy is to make the suspension very floppy, using the pressure differential across the cone to provide the force that opposes the motor force. The assumption is that the restoring force will be a linear function of cone displacement. But the obvious questions are with the linearity of the motor, and also the spider, which is part of the mechanical suspension. The voice coils are very long indeed, which leads to greater self-inductance, and also greater DC resistance and thus reduced sensitivity. The alternative approach is to avoid the large cone excursion. This fundamental advantage gets lost in all the talk about -3B points and group delay. Group delay is accompanied by a time shift for output in the deep bass, relative to the rest of the spectrum, and becomes audible when, but only when, attenuation is severe. As long as the enclosure and port are tuned to adequately low frequency, such that you do not get the steep drop-off below the -3 dB point, it is not a problem at all. But there are other drawbacks. If the diameter of the port is not great enough, compression will occur, leading to reduced low-frequency output at higher volume levels. I.e., turn up the volume loud enough, and the bass disappears, and as it does so, the cone excursion increases. And this occurs regardless at frequencies below the -3 dB point, i.e., you still have high cone excursion and high distortion. There are other potential disadvantages that may or may not be significant, depending on who you ask: organ pipe effect and midrange leakage. For medium-sized satellite speakers that rely on a subwoofer for deep bass, there is probably no significant difference between the two types, but it depends on the size of the satellite speakers, and also on whether equalization is used. With “home theater” speaker systems that use little tiny satellite speakers, the ported approach can be advantageous if used in conjunction with equalization, the reason being that you can use equalization to correct anomalies in the frequency response and extend the bass, while the port has the net, appreciable effect of reducing cone excursion, thereby reducing distortion. This same advantage, by the same reasoning, can apply to any speaker where porting is combined with equalization, whether the equalization is built in to the speaker as in the case of a powered monitor, or is accomplished by means of (ostensible) room-correction speaker setup in a modern home theater receiver. Ported designs also make sense with very large speakers with very large woofers, since with these speakers, the benefit of reduced cone excursion still applies, as it invariably does. Most powered monitors are ported, because the driver itself does not displace sufficient volume to be capable of strong output in the deep bass. The required amount of excursion would be so great that high distortion would occur. With this type of speaker, you tune the enclosure and the port to a frequency well below the frequency that the alignment rules says that you should use, and then use equalization to correct the anomalies in the frequency response. This type of speaker is very smart from the additional perspective of the crossover, since by using separate amplifiers for each driver, the crossover is rendered immune from interaction with the complex impedance of the driver. Steve81 posts on October 17, 2012 09:13 Revisiting the thread before things went off track, I did set things up again for sealed mode on my PB13U for some listening last night with a mixture of country and classic rock (that’s right, I’m a little bit country, AND a little bit rock and roll ). I still can’t say I had any OMG moments versus what I’m already used to with 16Hz tune. Of course, it’s pretty cool to have the option, and I’m glad SVS offers it. As a side story, in terms of sealed versus ported speakers, I first got into this hobby with acoustic suspension speakers. The first speakers I ever purchased were a pair of Cambridge Soundworks Model Six speakers. For those that are unaware, Edgar Villchur had a partner at AR when he released the AR-1, former student Henry Kloss. Kloss would go on to found KLH (he was the K), Advent, and Cambridge Soundworks. The CSW Model Six was/is (theoretically) loosely based on the old KLH Model Six. I couldn’t qualify them as being great speakers by any stretch, but they were quite easy to listen to. On the other side of the coin though, I didn’t find anything magical about acoustic suspension there either, and I’ve never caught myself pining for my old Model Sixes in spite of the fact that every speaker I own now is ported. Ed Mullen posts on October 11, 2012 10:55 Making a speaker that can be sealed or ported, may be good marketing, but it is lousy engineering. For any woofer optimal box sizes for a sealed and ported alignment are going to be very different. There are significant differences in driver selection and design for the two alignments. I’ll beg to differ on the ‘lousy engineering’ part - but you’re certainly correct on the second half of your statement. That is why we use a completely different variant of the Ultra 13.5” driver in our smaller SB13-Ultra subwoofer. That driver is optimized for operation in a sealed cabinet of that volume. We revised motor geometry (overhung) with a very high force factor (BL^2/Re). Extensive modeling and acoustic testing indicated that this is the preferred motor alignment for a sealed application in this size cabinet. We use a unique voice coil (bifilar wound, 3” diameter, aluminum, and with a longer winding height) optimized for a sealed application, resulting in higher power handling and excellent thermal management and heat dissipation. We also added a unique gap extension plate (nested in the top plate) for a more symmetrical force/displacement profile, resulting in lower distortion and increased linear stroke. In the case of the PB13-Ultra, that variant of the 13.5” driver (which is completely different that the SB13-Ultra driver) is optimized for a large cabinet volume. As such, the performance remains very good, even in sealed mode. The PB13-Ultra driver is not terribly happy in a small sealed cabinet - but as you noted it performs very well in sealed mode in a large cabinet - and that’s why we confidently offer this operating mode for the PB13-Ultra. You’ll note the very low Q knee and shallow roll-off profile. This minimizes phase change with respect to frequency, and the associated GD curve is very favorable. The PB13-Ultra sounds fantastic in sealed mode, and has plenty of output for mid-size rooms. The sealed performance is respectable, but F3 is probably too high for HT enthusiasts who want to feel the explosions. With respect to deep extension, the PB13U in sealed mode is only down about 7 dB @ 20 Hz, relative to the 40-80 Hz reference drive level. Due to the very shallow roll-off slope (something you won’t often encounter in commercial sealed offerings), when used a mid-size enclosed room which exhibits a modicum of ‘room gain’ (i.e., the acoustic transfer function below the modal/pressure transition frequency of the listening space) the PB13U in sealed mode can/will exhibit remarkably deep in-room extension. My personal reference HT room has rigidly constructed boundaries and is fairly tightly enclosed, and exhibits about 18 dB of room gain at 10-12 Hz. The PB13U in sealed mode in this particular room is flat to almost 10 Hz. Further evidence of this can been seen in PBC’s review of the SB13-Ultra (which has a very similar system Q and roll-off slope as the PB13U in sealed mode). Even in his mid-size and rather open/lossy listening space, the SB13-Ultra measured flat to 15 Hz in-room. http://forums.audioholics.com/forums/subwoofers/81423-pbcs-svsound-sb13-ultra-user-review.html [forums.audioholics.com] gene posts on October 11, 2012 10:06 Making a speaker that can be sealed or ported, may be good marketing, but it is lousy engineering. For any woofer optimal box sizes for a sealed and ported alignment are going to be very different. There are significant differences in driver selection and design for the two alignments. Or a more balanced viewpoint is offering multiple tuning modes including the option to seal a ported design opens wider placement options and is in fact excellent engineering in doing so. The PB13-Ultra is this example one of engineered excellence as any owner or person that’s actually heard one could vouch for. Post Reply   Join our Newsletter for News & Deals http://www.audioholics.com

Sealed vs Ported Loudspeakers: Which is Better? — Reviews and …

by Steve Feinsteinlast modified October 09, 2012

sealed vs ported - courtesy of dummies.com

sealed vs ported - courtesy of dummies.com

This is an age-old question: Which is better? There are certainly points on each side of the argument to consider. The debate of ported vs. sealed is intrinsically relevant and interesting, regardless of the arbitrary brand involved.

When AR (Acoustic Research of Cambridge MA) introduced its original AR-1 acoustic suspension system in 1954 (see figure 1), it represented a quantum leap forward in the advancement of the reproduction of accurate, extended, low-distortion bass from a home loudspeaker. Noted reviewer Julian Hirsch remarked to me that he “knew the industry would never be the same” when he heard the AR-1’s bass.

 AR-1 w grill

    Fig 1 AR-1 of 1954

Using the air trapped inside a sealed cabinet as the restoring force to the woofer cone resulted in a clean, linear response that was a step forward over what existed at the time and is still extremely competitive, even today. The AR-1 (and its famous descendants like the AR-3, -3a, and –LST) had an honest, measurably verified frequency response that was smooth and level down to a minus 3dB point of 35 Hz, with less than 5% THD at that frequency at a 20-watt drive level! There are simply no current passive loudspeakers using just a single bass driver in an enclosure well under 2 cu.ft. that could match that performance, even today.

Not even the big Klipsch’s and Bozaks of the AR-1’s day could reach down to -3 dB at 35 Hz, with less than 5% THD, and they were 4-6-8 cu. ft. boxes. Sealed was a real advancement at the time. Without it, great bass from small boxes wouldn’t have existed, KLH, Advent and EPI wouldn’t have followed AR, and the whole stereo industry wouldn’t have exploded in sales like it did. The smaller box in the living room was icing on the cake (with stereo coming along in 1958, now you needed two speaker boxes), but that’s not what drove Ed Villchur to invent the AR-1. The advancement in bass performance drove AR, not “small box marketing,” as some revisionist historians have opined.

Since then, however, as pure research—led in a major way by Dr. Thiele—and computer technology have advanced through the ensuing years, better ported designs are now possible, to the point where acoustic suspension’s pure performance advantages, such as low distortion and linear response (lack of “boominess”) are less apparent. In fact, the trade-offs in greater efficiency and lower 3dB down point often point in favor of a ported approach to system design.

What has changed over the last 50+ years to essentially eliminate this gap? Several factors:

1. Quantifiable, known research and documentation of driver, port, and enclosure parameters, combined with the arrival of fast, economical computing in the commercial corporate environment. Specifically, the work of Thiele and Small in the ‘70’s removed much of the previous uncertainty regarding vented speaker design, and when coupled with the newly available inexpensive computing power, it meant that a new level of speaker design accuracy was achievable. In the 40’s, 50’s and 60’s, designing a vented speaker involved a lot of cut ‘n try guesswork. Designers had to be happy with ‘close enough’ or ‘in the ballpark,’ because the precise calculations needed for optimum outcomes hadn’t yet been done. Sealed designs were more forgiving by nature, and didn’t sound offensive or low-fi when they were less than perfectly done. A poorly done vented system, in contrast, could sound like a bad acoustical joke.

There is a school of thought that points out that the T-S parameters are a bit of a simplification and therefore not fully accurate. A former KEF engineer states:

“The small signal behavior of the loudspeaker can indeed be calculated to better than 95% accuracy from a measurement of the impedance of the loudspeaker. To do this one needs a good model of the equivalent circuit of the loudspeaker system, than do an impedance fit to this model. From that, the equivalent circuit can show the current flow through the components that represent the vent mass and the driver mass, and hence calculate their acceleration. This is the equivalent to the far field response, ignoring cabinet diffraction.

One can then calculate the response from the impedance, measure the nearfield of vent plus driver, measure the inbox pressure, measure the farfield (in a well-calibrated chamber), and get all of these to agree to within 0.5dB down to 30Hz.

However, if it is then converted to T/S parameters, due to them ignoring some of the driver behavior, the result will not be as accurate.

Given that most people who measure the low frequency response do not have access to an anechoic chamber, this is actually a better way for them to get a reasonable idea of the LF performance.”

2. Computer-aided design programs. With today’s design programs, such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and 3D modeling programs such as Pro/Engineer, hundreds or thousands of driver/enclosure prototypes can be built in the virtual world of the computer before even one is actually built in the lab. A virtually unlimited number of iterations of magnet structure, cone shape, cone thickness, surround/spider compliance, voice coil length, coil winding, and pole plate variations can be tried and evaluated, before any physical parts are ever used. Different port lengths and geometries can be tried, vibrational analysis can be applied to ‘virtual’ cabinet walls to discover resonant modes and ascertain the structural integrity needed to optimize cabinet design within the cost target of the project. By the time a physical prototype is constructed, it is already most of the way there, with no big surprises.In contrast, in the good ‘ol days of the big bass reflex floorstander, after first trying differing port lengths/tunings, how many iterations and prototypes of the driver itself did they do? Two? Maybe three? Each time, hand-cutting a new pole piece, hand-winding a new voice coil, ordering and waiting for delivery of new magnets….

3. Advanced manufacturing processes and materials. Today’s most advanced loudspeaker manufacturing plants utilize very close-tolerance procedures with advanced adhesives and materials technology that were simply unavailable a generation ago.

It’s interesting to note a few basic factors that still fuel the sealed vs. ported issue, even today. At low frequencies, increasing SPL requirements demand ever-greater woofer excursion from a sealed system, which limits output and can increase distortion. In a properly tuned vented system, the port is providing the majority of low-frequency output, and the driver’s excursion—and hence its distortion—is very low.

The upshot of all this is that today’s speakers can be much better performers than yesterday’s if the company and/or designer so chooses. The blueprint for excellent performance is better known than it was in years past, and a skilled designer with clear, worthy goals working with today’s best tools can achieve astonishing performance at incredibly modest prices. It’s less a question of whether to take Sealed Avenue or Ported Road, and more a question of what you’ve chosen as your destination.

by Steve Feinsteinlast modified October 09, 2012

Recent Forum Posts:

Post Reply

kaiser_soze posts on January 12, 2013 21:57

Something else that bugs me is that a lot of people are talking about Q as if a resonance is fully described by its Q. I find this very odd. Manifestly, a resonance is described by a particular frequency and by its Q. Merely by virtue of the fact that the driver itself is intrinsically an oscillator complete with a resonance, any bass reproduction is going to have a Q, but by no means does it make sense to suggest that the Q by itself determines the quality of the sound (even if distortion is not relevant or considered). For example, if you have two sealed enclosures and the system resonance for one occurs at 15 Hz while the system resonance for the other occurs at 70 Hz, they are not going to sound similar even Q is .5 for both, or .707 for both, or whatever. Given only that, it is apparent that it does not make sense to assess the difference in the sound of ported speakers vs. sealed speakers on the basis purely of Q. If a ported speaker is tuned to 10 Hz and and a sealed speaker has its system resonance at 75 Hz, you certainly are not going to be able to say anything definitive about the difference in the quality of sound between the two, from just the Q.

kaiser_soze posts on January 12, 2013 21:42

This article covers some of the issues. But Mr. Feinstein started by asserting that the AR-1, now nearly fifty years old, was inherently superior to any modern speaker in terms of quantity and quality of deep bass. (I used to also believe this, passionately.) He then proceeds to explain why ported designs are so much better than they used to be, but hardly manages to identify any advantage of ported designs. You have to look hard for it. In the second page, he wrote, “My own feeling is that the lower 3dB down point of a small ported system and its higher efficiency are thought by many companies to be worthy advantages in today’s less critical, less hobbyist-driven audio environment.” He proceeds from there to talk about group delay, and even though he prefaced that by saying that he was about to contradict himself, he did not contradict himself at all. The group delay issue points very clearly to the superiority of acoustic-suspension speakers.

Unless you believe that the world’s finest, modern speaker companies are concerned primarily with speaker efficiency and the -3dB point, to the detriment of bass quality, the article does not really explain the reason that most of the world’s finest, modern speaker companies prefer ported designs.

It all comes down to one fact: cone excursion is vastly lower with ported designs than with sealed, acoustic suspension enclosures. This translates in a rather immediate way to reduced non-linear distortion in the deep bass. With the acoustic suspension approach, the strategy is to make the suspension very floppy, using the pressure differential across the cone to provide the force that opposes the motor force. The assumption is that the restoring force will be a linear function of cone displacement. But the obvious questions are with the linearity of the motor, and also the spider, which is part of the mechanical suspension. The voice coils are very long indeed, which leads to greater self-inductance, and also greater DC resistance and thus reduced sensitivity.

The alternative approach is to avoid the large cone excursion. This fundamental advantage gets lost in all the talk about -3B points and group delay. Group delay is accompanied by a time shift for output in the deep bass, relative to the rest of the spectrum, and becomes audible when, but only when, attenuation is severe. As long as the enclosure and port are tuned to adequately low frequency, such that you do not get the steep drop-off below the -3 dB point, it is not a problem at all. But there are other drawbacks. If the diameter of the port is not great enough, compression will occur, leading to reduced low-frequency output at higher volume levels. I.e., turn up the volume loud enough, and the bass disappears, and as it does so, the cone excursion increases. And this occurs regardless at frequencies below the -3 dB point, i.e., you still have high cone excursion and high distortion. There are other potential disadvantages that may or may not be significant, depending on who you ask: organ pipe effect and midrange leakage.

For medium-sized satellite speakers that rely on a subwoofer for deep bass, there is probably no significant difference between the two types, but it depends on the size of the satellite speakers, and also on whether equalization is used. With “home theater” speaker systems that use little tiny satellite speakers, the ported approach can be advantageous if used in conjunction with equalization, the reason being that you can use equalization to correct anomalies in the frequency response and extend the bass, while the port has the net, appreciable effect of reducing cone excursion, thereby reducing distortion. This same advantage, by the same reasoning, can apply to any speaker where porting is combined with equalization, whether the equalization is built in to the speaker as in the case of a powered monitor, or is accomplished by means of (ostensible) room-correction speaker setup in a modern home theater receiver.

Ported designs also make sense with very large speakers with very large woofers, since with these speakers, the benefit of reduced cone excursion still applies, as it invariably does. Most powered monitors are ported, because the driver itself does not displace sufficient volume to be capable of strong output in the deep bass. The required amount of excursion would be so great that high distortion would occur. With this type of speaker, you tune the enclosure and the port to a frequency well below the frequency that the alignment rules says that you should use, and then use equalization to correct the anomalies in the frequency response. This type of speaker is very smart from the additional perspective of the crossover, since by using separate amplifiers for each driver, the crossover is rendered immune from interaction with the complex impedance of the driver.

Steve81 posts on October 17, 2012 09:13

Revisiting the thread before things went off track, I did set things up again for sealed mode on my PB13U for some listening last night with a mixture of country and classic rock (that’s right, I’m a little bit country, AND a little bit rock and roll ). I still can’t say I had any OMG moments versus what I’m already used to with 16Hz tune. Of course, it’s pretty cool to have the option, and I’m glad SVS offers it.

As a side story, in terms of sealed versus ported speakers, I first got into this hobby with acoustic suspension speakers. The first speakers I ever purchased were a pair of Cambridge Soundworks Model Six speakers. For those that are unaware, Edgar Villchur had a partner at AR when he released the AR-1, former student Henry Kloss. Kloss would go on to found KLH (he was the K), Advent, and Cambridge Soundworks. The CSW Model Six was/is (theoretically) loosely based on the old KLH Model Six. I couldn’t qualify them as being great speakers by any stretch, but they were quite easy to listen to. On the other side of the coin though, I didn’t find anything magical about acoustic suspension there either, and I’ve never caught myself pining for my old Model Sixes in spite of the fact that every speaker I own now is ported.

Ed Mullen posts on October 11, 2012 10:55

Making a speaker that can be sealed or ported, may be good marketing, but it is lousy engineering.

For any woofer optimal box sizes for a sealed and ported alignment are going to be very different. There are significant differences in driver selection and design for the two alignments.

I’ll beg to differ on the ‘lousy engineering’ part - but you’re certainly correct on the second half of your statement.

That is why we use a completely different variant of the Ultra 13.5” driver in our smaller SB13-Ultra subwoofer. That driver is optimized for operation in a sealed cabinet of that volume.

  • We revised motor geometry (overhung) with a very high force factor (BL^2/Re). Extensive modeling and acoustic testing indicated that this is the preferred motor alignment for a sealed application in this size cabinet.
  • We use a unique voice coil (bifilar wound, 3” diameter, aluminum, and with a longer winding height) optimized for a sealed application, resulting in higher power handling and excellent thermal management and heat dissipation.
  • We also added a unique gap extension plate (nested in the top plate) for a more symmetrical force/displacement profile, resulting in lower distortion and increased linear stroke.

In the case of the PB13-Ultra, that variant of the 13.5” driver (which is completely different that the SB13-Ultra driver) is optimized for a large cabinet volume. As such, the performance remains very good, even in sealed mode. The PB13-Ultra driver is not terribly happy in a small sealed cabinet - but as you noted it performs very well in sealed mode in a large cabinet - and that’s why we confidently offer this operating mode for the PB13-Ultra.

You’ll note the very low Q knee and shallow roll-off profile. This minimizes phase change with respect to frequency, and the associated GD curve is very favorable. The PB13-Ultra sounds fantastic in sealed mode, and has plenty of output for mid-size rooms.

The sealed performance is respectable, but F3 is probably too high for HT enthusiasts who want to feel the explosions.

With respect to deep extension, the PB13U in sealed mode is only down about 7 dB @ 20 Hz, relative to the 40-80 Hz reference drive level. Due to the very shallow roll-off slope (something you won’t often encounter in commercial sealed offerings), when used a mid-size enclosed room which exhibits a modicum of ‘room gain’ (i.e., the acoustic transfer function below the modal/pressure transition frequency of the listening space) the PB13U in sealed mode can/will exhibit remarkably deep in-room extension.

My personal reference HT room has rigidly constructed boundaries and is fairly tightly enclosed, and exhibits about 18 dB of room gain at 10-12 Hz. The PB13U in sealed mode in this particular room is flat to almost 10 Hz.

Further evidence of this can been seen in PBC’s review of the SB13-Ultra (which has a very similar system Q and roll-off slope as the PB13U in sealed mode). Even in his mid-size and rather open/lossy listening space, the SB13-Ultra measured flat to 15 Hz in-room.

http://forums.audioholics.com/forums/subwoofers/81423-pbcs-svsound-sb13-ultra-user-review.html [forums.audioholics.com]

gene posts on October 11, 2012 10:06

Making a speaker that can be sealed or ported, may be good marketing, but it is lousy engineering.

For any woofer optimal box sizes for a sealed and ported alignment are going to be very different. There are significant differences in driver selection and design for the two alignments.

Or a more balanced viewpoint is offering multiple tuning modes including the option to seal a ported design opens wider placement options and is in fact excellent engineering in doing so. The PB13-Ultra is this example one of engineered excellence as any owner or person that’s actually heard one could vouch for.

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oop - Interface vs Abstract Class (general OO) - Stack Overflow Vote count: 134 I have had recently two telephone interviews where I’ve been asked about the differences between an Interface and an Abstract class. I have explained every aspect of them I could think of, but it seems they are waiting for me to mention something specific, and I don’t know what it is. From my experience I think the following is true. If I am missing a major point please let me know. Interface: Every single Method declared in an Interface will have to be implemented in the subclass. Only Events, Delegates, Properties (C#) and Methods can exist in a Interface. A class can implement multiple Interfaces. Abstract Class: Only Abstract methods have to be implemented by the subclass. An Abstract class can have normal methods with implementations. Abstract class can also have class variables beside Events, Delegates, Properties and Methods. A class can only implement one abstract class only due non-existence of Multi-inheritance in C#. After all that, the interviewer came up with the question “What if you had an Abstract class with only abstract methods? How would that be different from an interface?” I didn’t know the answer but I think it’s the inheritance as mentioned above right? An another interviewer asked me what if you had a Public variable inside the interface, how would that be different than in Abstract Class? I insisted you can’t have a public variable inside an interface. I didn’t know what he wanted to hear but he wasn’t satisfied either. See Also: edited Jan 11 ‘12 at 10:48 Lightness Races in Orbit 71.8k asked Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:42 Kave 4,520 17 Answers Vote count: 82 accepted While your question indicates it’s for “general OO”, it really seems to be focusing on .NET use of these terms. In .NET (similar for Java): interfaces can have no state or implementation a class that implements an interface must provide an implementation of all the methods of that interface abstract classes may contain state (data members) and/or implementation (methods) abstract classes can be inherited without implementing the abstract methods (though such a derived class is abstract itslef) interfaces may be multiple-inherited, abstract classes may not (this is probably the key concrete reason for interfaces to exist separately from abtract classes - they permit an implementation of multiple inheritance that removes many of the problems of general MI). As general OO terms, the differences are not necessarily well-defined. For example, there are C++ programmers who may hold similar rigid definitions (interfaces are a strict subset of abstract classes that cannot contain implementation), while some may say that an abstract class with some default implementations is still an interface or that a non-abstract class can still define an interface. Indeed, there is a C++ idiom called the Non-Virtual Interface (NVI) where the public methods are non-virtual methods that ‘thunk’ to private virtual methods: answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 17:18 Michael Burr 138k Vote count: 82 How about an analogy: when I was in the Air Force, I went to pilot training and became a USAF pilot. At that point I wasn’t qualified to fly anything, and had to attend aircraft type training. Once I qualified, I was a pilot (Abstract class) and a C-141 pilot (concrete class). At one of my assignments, I was given an additional duty: Safety Officer. Now I was still a pilot and a C-141 pilot, but I also performed Safety Officer duties (I implemented ISafetyOfficer, so to speak). A pilot wasn’t required to be a safety officer, other people could have done it as well. All USAF pilots have to follow certain Air Force-wide regulations, and all C-141 (or F-16, or T-38) pilots ‘are’ USAF pilots. Anyone can be a safety officer. So, to summarize: Pilot: abstract class C-141 Pilot: concrete class Safety Officer: interface edited Jan 11 ‘12 at 10:50 Lightness Races in Orbit 71.8k answered Aug 30 ‘10 at 4:40 Jay 1,209 Vote count: 24 There are a couple of other differences - Interfaces can’t have any concrete implementations. Abstract base classes can. This allows you to provide concrete implementations there. This can allow an abstract base class to actually provide a more rigorous contract, wheras an interface really only describes how a class is used. (The abstract base class can have non-virtual members defining the behavior, which gives more control to the base class author.) More than one interface can be implemented on a class. A class can only derive from a single abstract base class. This allows for polymorphic hierarchy using interfaces, but not abstract base classes. This also allows for a pseudo-multi-inheritance using interfaces. Abstract base classes can be modified in v2+ without breaking the API. Changes to interfaces are breaking changes. [C#/.NET Specific] Interfaces, unlike abstract base classes, can be applied to value types (structs). Structs cannot inherit from abstract base classes. This allows behavioral contracts/usage guidelines to be applied on value types. edited Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:58 answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:46 Reed Copsey 228k Vote count: 18 I think the answer they are looking for is the fundamental or OPPS philosophical difference. The abstract class inheritance is used when the derived class shares the core properties and behaviour of the abstract class. The kind of behaviour that actually defines the class. On the other hand interface inheritance is used when the classes share peripheral behaviour, ones which do not necessarily define the derived class. For eg. A Car and a Truck share a lot of core properties and behaviour of an Automobile abstract class, but they also share some peripheral behaviour like Generate exhaust which even non automobile classes like Drillers or PowerGenerators share and doesn’t necessarily defines a Car or a Truck, so Car, Truck, Driller and PowerGenerator can all share the same interface IExhaust. answered Aug 31 ‘11 at 12:09 Prasun 181 Vote count: 10 Short: Abstract classes are used for Modelling a class hierarchy of similar looking classes (For example Animal can be abstract class and Human , Lion, Tiger can be concrete derived classes) AND Interface is used for Communication between 2 similar / non similar classes which does not care about type of the class implementing Interface(e.g. Height can be interface property and it can be implemented by Human , Building , Tree. It does not matter if you can eat , you can swim you can die or anything.. it matters only a thing that you need to have Height (implementation in you class) ). answered Apr 5 ‘12 at 9:53 Dhananjay 648 Vote count: 9 The interviewers are barking up an odd tree. For languages like C# and Java, there is a difference, but in other languages like C++ there is not. OO theory doesn’t differentiate the two, merely the syntax of language. An abstract class is a class with both implementation and interface (pure virtual methods) that will be inherited. Interfaces generally do not have any implementation but only pure virtual functions. In C# or Java an abstract class without any implementation differs from an interface only in the syntax used to inherit from it and the fact you can only inherit from one. answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:48 Steve Rowe 13.4k Vote count: 7 By implementing interfaces you are achieving composition (“has-a” relationships) instead of inheritance (“is-a” relationships). That is an important principle to remember when it comes to things like design patterns where you need to use interfaces to achieve a composition of behaviors instead of an inheritance. answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:52 TheTXI 20.2k Vote count: 4 For .Net, Your answer to The second interviewer is also the answer to the first one… Abstract classes can have implementation, AND state, interfaces cannot… EDIT: On another note, I wouldn’t even use the phrase ‘subclass’ (or the ‘inheritance’ phrase) to describe classes that are ‘defined to implement’ an interface. To me, an interface is a definition of a contract that a class must conform to if it has been defined to ‘implement’ that interface. It does not inherit anything… You have to add everything yourself, explicitly. edited Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:53 answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:48 Charles Bretana 40.7k Vote count: 4 Conceptually speaking, keeping the language specific implementation, rules, benefits and achieving any programming goal by using anyone or both, can or cant have code/data/property, blah blah, single or multiple inheritance, all aside 1- Abstract (or pure abstract) Class is a mean to implement hierarchy. If your business objects look somewhat structurally similar, representing a parent child (hierarchy) kind of relationship only then inheritance/Abstract classes will be used. If your business model does not have a hierarchy then inheritance should not be used (here i am not talking about programming logic e.g. some design patterns require inheritance). Conceptually, abstract class is a method to implement hierarchy of a business model in OOP, it has nothing to do with Interfaces, actually comparing Abstract class with Interface is meaningless because both are conceptually totally different things, it is asked in interviews just to check the concepts because it looks both provide somewhat same functionality when implementation is concerned and we programmers usually emphasize more on coding. [Keep this in mind as well that Abstraction is different than Abstract Class]. 2- Interface is a contract, a complete business functionality represented by one of more set of functions. That is why it is implemented and not inherited. A business object (part of a hierarchy or not) can have any number of complete business functionality. It has nothing to do with abstract classes means inheritance in general. For example, a human can RUN, an elephant can RUN, a bird can RUN, and so on, all these objects of different hierarchy would implement the RUN interface or EAT or SPEAK interface. Dont go into implementation as you might implement it as having abstract classes for each type implementing these interfaces. An object of any hierarchy can have a functionality(interface) which has nothing to do with its hierarchy. I believe, Interfaces were not invented to achieve multiple inheritance or to expose public behavior, and similarly, pure abstract classes are not to over rule interfaces but Interface is a functionality that an object can do (via functions of that interface) and Abstract Class represents a parent of a hierarchy to produce children having core structure (property+functionality) of the parent When you are asked about the difference, it is actually conceptual difference not the difference in language specific implementation unless asked explicitly. I believe, both interviewers were expecting one line straight forward difference between these two and when you failed they tried to drove you towards this difference by implementing ONE as the OTHER What if you had an Abstract class with only abstract methods? answered Jan 23 ‘12 at 11:43 bjan 478 Vote count: 2 1) An interface can be seen as a pure Abstract Class, is the same, but despite this, is not the same to implement an interface and inheriting from an abstract class. When you inherit from this pure abstract class you are defining a hierarchy -> inheritance, if you implement the interface you are not, and you can implement as many interfaces as you want, but you can only inherit from one class. 2) You can define a property in an interface, so the class that implements that interface must have that property. For example: public interface IVariable { string name {get; set;} } The class that implements that interface must have a property like that. edited Jan 11 ‘12 at 10:50 Lightness Races in Orbit 71.8k answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:50 MRFerocius 1,274 Vote count: 1 From another answer of mine, mostly dealing with when to use one versus the other: In my experience, interfaces are best used when you have several classes which each need to respond to the same method or methods so that they can be used interchangeably by other code which will be written against those classes’ common interface. The best use of an interface is when the protocol is important but the underlying logic may be different for each class. If you would otherwise be duplicating logic, consider abstract classes or standard class inheritance instead. answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:48 Adam Alexander 7,882 Vote count: 1 Interfaces are light weight way to enforce a particular behavior. That is one way to think of. answered Jan 19 ‘10 at 5:48 fastcodejava 14.3k Vote count: 1 Couple of other differences: Abstract classes can have static methods, properties, fields etc. and operators, interfaces can’t. Cast operator allows casting to/from abstract class but don’t allow casting to/from interface. So pretty much you can use abstract class on its own even if it is never implemented (through its static members) and you can’t use interface on its own in any way. answered May 12 ‘10 at 22:10 Orlin Petrov 11 Vote count: 0 The answer to the second question may be that the public variable defined in interface is static final by default while the public variable in abstract class is an instance variable . answered Oct 5 ‘09 at 12:03 Nidhi Agarwal Vote count: 0 Interface: We do not implement(or define) methods, we do that in derived classes. We do not declare member variables in interfaces. Interfaces express the HAS-A relationship. That means it is a mask of objects. Abstract class: We can declare and define methods in abstract class. We hide constructors of it. That means there is no object created from it directly. Abstract class can holds member variables. Derived classes inherit to abstract class that mean objects from derived classes are not masked, it inherit to abstract class. The relationship in this case is IS-A. This is my opinion. edited Oct 23 ‘11 at 9:06 answered Oct 23 ‘11 at 9:00 nautilusvn 46 Vote count: 0 though question is quite old but for upcoming readers I would like to add the strong point, In favor to interfaces Interface can be injected using any DI tools where as Abstract class injection supported by few. edited Sep 1 ‘12 at 2:04 answered Aug 25 ‘12 at 22:22 alliswell 2,333 Vote count: 0 Difference between Java Interface and Abstract Class Main difference is methods of a Java interface are implicitly abstract and cannot have implementations. A Java abstract class can have instance methods that implements a default behavior. Variables declared in a Java interface is by default final. An abstract class may contain non-final variables. Members of a Java interface are public by default. A Java abstract class can have the usual flavors of class members like private, protected, etc.. Java interface should be implemented using keyword “implements”; A Java abstract class should be extended using keyword “extends”. An interface can extend another Java interface only, an abstract class can extend another Java class and implement multiple Java interfaces. A Java class can implement multiple interfaces but it can extend only one abstract class. Interface is absolutely abstract and cannot be instantiated; A Java abstract class also cannot be instantiated, but can be invoked if a main() exists. In comparison with java abstract classes, java interfaces are slow as it requires extra indirection. answered Feb 14 at 20:00 Mudasir Bhutto 163

oop - Interface vs Abstract Class (general OO) - Stack Overflow

Vote count: 134

I have had recently two telephone interviews where I’ve been asked about the differences between an Interface and an Abstract class. I have explained every aspect of them I could think of, but it seems they are waiting for me to mention something specific, and I don’t know what it is.

From my experience I think the following is true. If I am missing a major point please let me know.

Interface:

Every single Method declared in an Interface will have to be implemented in the subclass. Only Events, Delegates, Properties (C#) and Methods can exist in a Interface. A class can implement multiple Interfaces.

Abstract Class:

Only Abstract methods have to be implemented by the subclass. An Abstract class can have normal methods with implementations. Abstract class can also have class variables beside Events, Delegates, Properties and Methods. A class can only implement one abstract class only due non-existence of Multi-inheritance in C#.

  1. After all that, the interviewer came up with the question “What if you had an Abstract class with only abstract methods? How would that be different from an interface?” I didn’t know the answer but I think it’s the inheritance as mentioned above right?

  2. An another interviewer asked me what if you had a Public variable inside the interface, how would that be different than in Abstract Class? I insisted you can’t have a public variable inside an interface. I didn’t know what he wanted to hear but he wasn’t satisfied either.

See Also:

asked Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:42
Kave
4,520

17 Answers

Vote count: 82 accepted

While your question indicates it’s for “general OO”, it really seems to be focusing on .NET use of these terms.

In .NET (similar for Java):

  • interfaces can have no state or implementation
  • a class that implements an interface must provide an implementation of all the methods of that interface
  • abstract classes may contain state (data members) and/or implementation (methods)
  • abstract classes can be inherited without implementing the abstract methods (though such a derived class is abstract itslef)
  • interfaces may be multiple-inherited, abstract classes may not (this is probably the key concrete reason for interfaces to exist separately from abtract classes - they permit an implementation of multiple inheritance that removes many of the problems of general MI).

As general OO terms, the differences are not necessarily well-defined. For example, there are C++ programmers who may hold similar rigid definitions (interfaces are a strict subset of abstract classes that cannot contain implementation), while some may say that an abstract class with some default implementations is still an interface or that a non-abstract class can still define an interface.

Indeed, there is a C++ idiom called the Non-Virtual Interface (NVI) where the public methods are non-virtual methods that ‘thunk’ to private virtual methods:

answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 17:18

Vote count: 82

How about an analogy: when I was in the Air Force, I went to pilot training and became a USAF pilot. At that point I wasn’t qualified to fly anything, and had to attend aircraft type training. Once I qualified, I was a pilot (Abstract class) and a C-141 pilot (concrete class). At one of my assignments, I was given an additional duty: Safety Officer. Now I was still a pilot and a C-141 pilot, but I also performed Safety Officer duties (I implemented ISafetyOfficer, so to speak). A pilot wasn’t required to be a safety officer, other people could have done it as well.

All USAF pilots have to follow certain Air Force-wide regulations, and all C-141 (or F-16, or T-38) pilots ‘are’ USAF pilots. Anyone can be a safety officer. So, to summarize:

  • Pilot: abstract class
  • C-141 Pilot: concrete class
  • Safety Officer: interface
answered Aug 30 ‘10 at 4:40
Jay
1,209

Vote count: 24

There are a couple of other differences -

Interfaces can’t have any concrete implementations. Abstract base classes can. This allows you to provide concrete implementations there. This can allow an abstract base class to actually provide a more rigorous contract, wheras an interface really only describes how a class is used. (The abstract base class can have non-virtual members defining the behavior, which gives more control to the base class author.)

More than one interface can be implemented on a class. A class can only derive from a single abstract base class. This allows for polymorphic hierarchy using interfaces, but not abstract base classes. This also allows for a pseudo-multi-inheritance using interfaces.

Abstract base classes can be modified in v2+ without breaking the API. Changes to interfaces are breaking changes.

[C#/.NET Specific] Interfaces, unlike abstract base classes, can be applied to value types (structs). Structs cannot inherit from abstract base classes. This allows behavioral contracts/usage guidelines to be applied on value types.


answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:46

Vote count: 18

I think the answer they are looking for is the fundamental or OPPS philosophical difference.

The abstract class inheritance is used when the derived class shares the core properties and behaviour of the abstract class. The kind of behaviour that actually defines the class.

On the other hand interface inheritance is used when the classes share peripheral behaviour, ones which do not necessarily define the derived class.

For eg. A Car and a Truck share a lot of core properties and behaviour of an Automobile abstract class, but they also share some peripheral behaviour like Generate exhaust which even non automobile classes like Drillers or PowerGenerators share and doesn’t necessarily defines a Car or a Truck, so Car, Truck, Driller and PowerGenerator can all share the same interface IExhaust.

answered Aug 31 ‘11 at 12:09

Vote count: 10

Short: Abstract classes are used for Modelling a class hierarchy of similar looking classes (For example Animal can be abstract class and Human , Lion, Tiger can be concrete derived classes)

AND

Interface is used for Communication between 2 similar / non similar classes which does not care about type of the class implementing Interface(e.g. Height can be interface property and it can be implemented by Human , Building , Tree. It does not matter if you can eat , you can swim you can die or anything.. it matters only a thing that you need to have Height (implementation in you class) ).

answered Apr 5 ‘12 at 9:53

Vote count: 9

The interviewers are barking up an odd tree. For languages like C# and Java, there is a difference, but in other languages like C++ there is not. OO theory doesn’t differentiate the two, merely the syntax of language.

An abstract class is a class with both implementation and interface (pure virtual methods) that will be inherited. Interfaces generally do not have any implementation but only pure virtual functions.

In C# or Java an abstract class without any implementation differs from an interface only in the syntax used to inherit from it and the fact you can only inherit from one.

answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:48

Vote count: 7

By implementing interfaces you are achieving composition (“has-a” relationships) instead of inheritance (“is-a” relationships). That is an important principle to remember when it comes to things like design patterns where you need to use interfaces to achieve a composition of behaviors instead of an inheritance.

answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:52
TheTXI
20.2k

Vote count: 4

For .Net,

Your answer to The second interviewer is also the answer to the first one… Abstract classes can have implementation, AND state, interfaces cannot…

EDIT: On another note, I wouldn’t even use the phrase ‘subclass’ (or the ‘inheritance’ phrase) to describe classes that are ‘defined to implement’ an interface. To me, an interface is a definition of a contract that a class must conform to if it has been defined to ‘implement’ that interface. It does not inherit anything… You have to add everything yourself, explicitly.


answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:48

Vote count: 4

Conceptually speaking, keeping the language specific implementation, rules, benefits and achieving any programming goal by using anyone or both, can or cant have code/data/property, blah blah, single or multiple inheritance, all aside

1- Abstract (or pure abstract) Class is a mean to implement hierarchy. If your business objects look somewhat structurally similar, representing a parent child (hierarchy) kind of relationship only then inheritance/Abstract classes will be used. If your business model does not have a hierarchy then inheritance should not be used (here i am not talking about programming logic e.g. some design patterns require inheritance). Conceptually, abstract class is a method to implement hierarchy of a business model in OOP, it has nothing to do with Interfaces, actually comparing Abstract class with Interface is meaningless because both are conceptually totally different things, it is asked in interviews just to check the concepts because it looks both provide somewhat same functionality when implementation is concerned and we programmers usually emphasize more on coding. [Keep this in mind as well that Abstraction is different than Abstract Class].

2- Interface is a contract, a complete business functionality represented by one of more set of functions. That is why it is implemented and not inherited. A business object (part of a hierarchy or not) can have any number of complete business functionality. It has nothing to do with abstract classes means inheritance in general. For example, a human can RUN, an elephant can RUN, a bird can RUN, and so on, all these objects of different hierarchy would implement the RUN interface or EAT or SPEAK interface. Dont go into implementation as you might implement it as having abstract classes for each type implementing these interfaces. An object of any hierarchy can have a functionality(interface) which has nothing to do with its hierarchy.

I believe, Interfaces were not invented to achieve multiple inheritance or to expose public behavior, and similarly, pure abstract classes are not to over rule interfaces but Interface is a functionality that an object can do (via functions of that interface) and Abstract Class represents a parent of a hierarchy to produce children having core structure (property+functionality) of the parent

When you are asked about the difference, it is actually conceptual difference not the difference in language specific implementation unless asked explicitly.

I believe, both interviewers were expecting one line straight forward difference between these two and when you failed they tried to drove you towards this difference by implementing ONE as the OTHER

What if you had an Abstract class with only abstract methods?

answered Jan 23 ‘12 at 11:43
bjan
478

Vote count: 2

1) An interface can be seen as a pure Abstract Class, is the same, but despite this, is not the same to implement an interface and inheriting from an abstract class. When you inherit from this pure abstract class you are defining a hierarchy -> inheritance, if you implement the interface you are not, and you can implement as many interfaces as you want, but you can only inherit from one class.

2) You can define a property in an interface, so the class that implements that interface must have that property.

For example:

  public interface IVariable
  {
      string name {get; set;}
  }

The class that implements that interface must have a property like that.

answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:50

Vote count: 1

From another answer of mine, mostly dealing with when to use one versus the other:

In my experience, interfaces are best used when you have several classes which each need to respond to the same method or methods so that they can be used interchangeably by other code which will be written against those classes’ common interface. The best use of an interface is when the protocol is important but the underlying logic may be different for each class. If you would otherwise be duplicating logic, consider abstract classes or standard class inheritance instead.

answered Apr 17 ‘09 at 16:48

Vote count: 1

Interfaces are light weight way to enforce a particular behavior. That is one way to think of.

answered Jan 19 ‘10 at 5:48

Vote count: 1

Couple of other differences:

Abstract classes can have static methods, properties, fields etc. and operators, interfaces can’t. Cast operator allows casting to/from abstract class but don’t allow casting to/from interface.

So pretty much you can use abstract class on its own even if it is never implemented (through its static members) and you can’t use interface on its own in any way.

answered May 12 ‘10 at 22:10

Vote count: 0

The answer to the second question may be that the public variable defined in interface is static final by default while the public variable in abstract class is an instance variable .

answered Oct 5 ‘09 at 12:03
Nidhi Agarwal

Vote count: 0

  1. Interface:
    • We do not implement(or define) methods, we do that in derived classes.
    • We do not declare member variables in interfaces.
    • Interfaces express the HAS-A relationship. That means it is a mask of objects.
  2. Abstract class:
    • We can declare and define methods in abstract class.
    • We hide constructors of it. That means there is no object created from it directly.
    • Abstract class can holds member variables.
    • Derived classes inherit to abstract class that mean objects from derived classes are not masked, it inherit to abstract class. The relationship in this case is IS-A.

This is my opinion.


answered Oct 23 ‘11 at 9:00

Vote count: 0

though question is quite old but for upcoming readers I would like to add the strong point,

In favor to interfaces

Interface can be injected using any DI tools where as Abstract class injection supported by few.


answered Aug 25 ‘12 at 22:22

Vote count: 0

Difference between Java Interface and Abstract Class

  1. Main difference is methods of a Java interface are implicitly abstract and cannot have implementations. A Java abstract class can have instance methods that implements a default behavior.

  2. Variables declared in a Java interface is by default final. An abstract class may contain non-final variables.

  3. Members of a Java interface are public by default. A Java abstract class can have the usual flavors of class members like private, protected, etc..

  4. Java interface should be implemented using keyword “implements”; A Java abstract class should be extended using keyword “extends”.

  5. An interface can extend another Java interface only, an abstract class can extend another Java class and implement multiple Java interfaces.

  6. A Java class can implement multiple interfaces but it can extend only one abstract class.

  7. Interface is absolutely abstract and cannot be instantiated; A Java abstract class also cannot be instantiated, but can be invoked if a main() exists.

  8. In comparison with java abstract classes, java interfaces are slow as it requires extra indirection.

answered Feb 14 at 20:00
Weather Forecast: Little Rock, Arkansas - The Weather Network     description description description description description Temp. Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness. Air temperatures are influenced by the local landscape, such as the presence of bodies of water. The air temperature is measured in degrees Celsius and is rounded to the nearest degree. The daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperatures that a forecaster expects are often expressed as a range. If the forecast issued covers a wide region, the highs and lows are not going to be identical across all areas in that region. More weather definitions » °C °C °C °C °C Feels Like Refers to how the outdoor air is expected to feel in degrees Celsius when actual temperature and relative humidity are combined (see humidex) or when actual temperature and wind are combined (see windchill). More weather definitions » - - - - - Wind Wind is the horizontal movement of air in relation to the earth’s surface. Wind direction tells where the wind is blowing from. For example, a “north wind” is coming from the north and is blowing towards the south. There are four components of wind that are measured: direction, speed, character (i.e. whether it’s a gust or a squall) and shifts. More weather definitions »   km/h   km/h   km/h   km/h   km/h Wind gusts A sudden significant increase in, or rapid variation of wind speed. Usually a gust lasts less than twenty seconds. More weather definitions »   %   %   %   %   % Relative Humidity Relative humidity is a percentage of water vapour per area at a specific temperature. Relative humidity is calculated at all times of the year, but the humidex is usually only given in the warmer months from May to September. Relative humidity can be calculated using various methods and instruments. It is a calculation to find out how many grams of water vapour can be held at a given temperature. Usually, the warmer the air, the higher its capacity for holding water vapour. Each specific temperature has a holding limit for water, and the actual amount of water held in the air at the time of measurement can be represented as a percentage. For example, if a parcel of air at 20ºC has a limit or capacity of 16 grams of water vapour and 16 grams of water vapour is measured, the air’s holding capacity is at its maximum and the relative humidity (RH) of the air is said to be 100%. Take the same air with 8 grams of water vapour and your RH is 50%. More weather definitions »   %   %   %   %   % P.O.P. P.O.P. stands for “Probability of Precipitation.” It does not predict when, where or how much precipitation will occur. When a weather service issues a forecast calling for rain, it is usually followed by a probability. For example: “P.O.P. 60%.” This expression means there is a 60% chance that any random place in the forecast area, such as your home, will receive measurable rainfall. Measurable rainfall means at least 0.2 mm of rain or the water equivalent of snow. More weather definitions »   %   %   %   %   % Dew Point The dewpoint is a measure of atmospheric moisture. It is the temperature at which air must be cooled in order to reach saturation (assuming that air pressure and moisture content are constant). As the surface of the earth cools at night, warm moist air near the ground is chilled and water vapour in the air condenses into droplets on the grass and other objects. Dew is particularly heavy on clear nights, when the earth cools rapidly. When a blanket of cloud insulates the earth, the cooling rate is slower. The greater the difference between the temperature and the dew point, the drier the air. More weather definitions »   °C   °C   °C   °C   °C Pressure The force per unit area exerted by the weight of the atmosphere above a point on or above the earth’s surface. Also known as atmospheric pressure or barometric pressure. More weather definitions »   kPa   kPa   kPa   kPa   kPa Rain Precipitation in the form of liquid water droplets greater than 0.5 mm. If widely scattered, the drop size may be smaller. The intensity of rain is based on rate of fall. “Very light” means that the scattered drops do not completely wet a surface. “Light” means it is greater than a trace and up to 2.5 mm an hour. “Moderate” means the rate of fall is between 2.8 mm to 7.6 mm per hour. “Heavy” means over 7.6 mm per hour. More weather definitions »           Snow Snow is a form of precipitation that consists of crystal of ice. These crystals grow from water vapor in clouds. During the snow formation process, water droplets, which are supercooled, slowly evaporate. Much of the resulting vapor joins the crystals, and so the crystals grow. The crystals fall faster as they grow and they may collide with one another to make snowflakes. The shape of snow crystals depends on the temperatures and to some extent on the amount of water vapor in the air. More weather definitions »          

Weather Forecast: Little Rock, Arkansas - The Weather Network

    description description description description description Temp.

Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness. Air temperatures are influenced by the local landscape, such as the presence of bodies of water. The air temperature is measured in degrees Celsius and is rounded to the nearest degree. The daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperatures that a forecaster expects are often expressed as a range. If the forecast issued covers a wide region, the highs and lows are not going to be identical across all areas in that region.

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°C °C °C °C °C Feels Like

Refers to how the outdoor air is expected to feel in degrees Celsius when actual temperature and relative humidity are combined (see humidex) or when actual temperature and wind are combined (see windchill).

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- - - - - Wind

Wind is the horizontal movement of air in relation to the earth’s surface. Wind direction tells where the wind is blowing from. For example, a “north wind” is coming from the north and is blowing towards the south. There are four components of wind that are measured: direction, speed, character (i.e. whether it’s a gust or a squall) and shifts.

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  km/h   km/h   km/h   km/h   km/h Wind gusts

A sudden significant increase in, or rapid variation of wind speed. Usually a gust lasts less than twenty seconds.

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  %   %   %   %   % Relative Humidity

Relative humidity is a percentage of water vapour per area at a specific temperature. Relative humidity is calculated at all times of the year, but the humidex is usually only given in the warmer months from May to September.

Relative humidity can be calculated using various methods and instruments. It is a calculation to find out how many grams of water vapour can be held at a given temperature. Usually, the warmer the air, the higher its capacity for holding water vapour. Each specific temperature has a holding limit for water, and the actual amount of water held in the air at the time of measurement can be represented as a percentage. For example, if a parcel of air at 20ºC has a limit or capacity of 16 grams of water vapour and 16 grams of water vapour is measured, the air’s holding capacity is at its maximum and the relative humidity (RH) of the air is said to be 100%. Take the same air with 8 grams of water vapour and your RH is 50%.

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  %   %   %   %   % P.O.P.

P.O.P. stands for “Probability of Precipitation.” It does not predict when, where or how much precipitation will occur. When a weather service issues a forecast calling for rain, it is usually followed by a probability.

For example: “P.O.P. 60%.” This expression means there is a 60% chance that any random place in the forecast area, such as your home, will receive measurable rainfall. Measurable rainfall means at least 0.2 mm of rain or the water equivalent of snow.

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  %   %   %   %   % Dew Point

The dewpoint is a measure of atmospheric moisture. It is the temperature at which air must be cooled in order to reach saturation (assuming that air pressure and moisture content are constant). As the surface of the earth cools at night, warm moist air near the ground is chilled and water vapour in the air condenses into droplets on the grass and other objects. Dew is particularly heavy on clear nights, when the earth cools rapidly. When a blanket of cloud insulates the earth, the cooling rate is slower. The greater the difference between the temperature and the dew point, the drier the air.

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  °C   °C   °C   °C   °C Pressure

The force per unit area exerted by the weight of the atmosphere above a point on or above the earth’s surface. Also known as atmospheric pressure or barometric pressure.

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  kPa   kPa   kPa   kPa   kPa Rain

Precipitation in the form of liquid water droplets greater than 0.5 mm. If widely scattered, the drop size may be smaller. The intensity of rain is based on rate of fall. “Very light” means that the scattered drops do not completely wet a surface. “Light” means it is greater than a trace and up to 2.5 mm an hour. “Moderate” means the rate of fall is between 2.8 mm to 7.6 mm per hour. “Heavy” means over 7.6 mm per hour.

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          Snow

Snow is a form of precipitation that consists of crystal of ice. These crystals grow from water vapor in clouds. During the snow formation process, water droplets, which are supercooled, slowly evaporate. Much of the resulting vapor joins the crystals, and so the crystals grow. The crystals fall faster as they grow and they may collide with one another to make snowflakes. The shape of snow crystals depends on the temperatures and to some extent on the amount of water vapor in the air.

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How to Make Fruit and Nut Bars - Fitness, Health & Well-Being … I’m a huge fan of Lärabars, but at $1.50 a pop, I can’t afford my addiction. Plus each one is around 200 calories, which is slightly high when noshing on one for just a snack. Check out these simple instructions on how to create your own dried fruit and nut bars. You’ll not only save money, but since these bars are slightly smaller, they make the perfect 150-calorie snack or dessert. These bars are made with almonds, dates, and raisins, but you can get creative and experiment with different nuts and dried fruits. I can’t tell you how addicted I am to these bars! If healthy cooking is one of your goals for 2012, be sure to enter to win a Magimix food processor and a year’s worth of Kind bars.

How to Make Fruit and Nut Bars - Fitness, Health & Well-Being …

I’m a huge fan of Lärabars, but at $1.50 a pop, I can’t afford my addiction. Plus each one is around 200 calories, which is slightly high when noshing on one for just a snack.

Check out these simple instructions on how to create your own dried fruit and nut bars. You’ll not only save money, but since these bars are slightly smaller, they make the perfect 150-calorie snack or dessert. These bars are made with almonds, dates, and raisins, but you can get creative and experiment with different nuts and dried fruits. I can’t tell you how addicted I am to these bars!

If healthy cooking is one of your goals for 2012, be sure to enter to win a Magimix food processor and a year’s worth of Kind bars.

Old Woodbridgians The moving magazine for former pupils, staff and friends of Woodbridge School, Suffolk, UK. News of OWs, the School, history features. (Source: oldwoodbridgians.org.uk)

Old Woodbridgians

The moving magazine for former pupils, staff and friends of Woodbridge School, Suffolk, UK. News of OWs, the School, history features.

(Source: oldwoodbridgians.org.uk)

Women Dresses: Maternity | Kohl’s Shop the Kohl’s Women Maternity Dresses collection today! Expect great things when you save at Kohls.com (Source: m.kohls.com)

Women Dresses: Maternity | Kohl’s

Shop the Kohl’s Women Maternity Dresses collection today! Expect great things when you save at Kohls.com

(Source: m.kohls.com)

White Kitchen - Scandinavian Style! - Journal - The Kitchen Designer I haven’t really shown you any images from my trip to Copenhagen yet! I have so many….over 2,000 to be round about precise (call me obsessive, I’m guilty!) And, let’s not forget my 10 (at least) magazines too. Lots of good stuff. Don’t get me diamonds, just get me a Scandinavian interior design magazine! (I didn’t really say that, right?) Speaking of good stuff, I went a little crazy with taking lots of images of this very soft, romantic, Scandinavian style that everyone loves so much. I found this wonderful style (so much style) in some very special antique stores, Atelier September and Fil de Fer. I have shared these particular images with Desire To Inspire, my good blogging buddies, because they have featured one of the stores before and I thought they would enjoy them, a fresh look from being IN the stores. I think they enjoyed them so much that they are doing a feature today AND featuring more, and different, images tomorrow!  What’s missing is the kitchen! The apartment we stayed in, in Copenhagen, definitely had this same romantic style going on. I saw pictures of it online and booked it immediately! I just HAD to stay there. So, here is a kitchen design connection to this romantic Scandinavian style that Desire To Inspire is showing. Today I will show you the kitchen, tomorrow, I will show you the adjacent breakfast room which will make you fall right over! Don’t forget to check back with Desire To Inspire tomorrow too, to see the complete look, connected with my images here.   Here are previous posts in Desire To Inspire…on Scandinavian Style  and more Scandinavian style and good Danish design too. I would encourage you to use the search tool in their blog, but watch the time, you’ll be there all day!

White Kitchen - Scandinavian Style! - Journal - The Kitchen Designer

I haven’t really shown you any images from my trip to Copenhagen yet! I have so many….over 2,000 to be round about precise (call me obsessive, I’m guilty!) And, let’s not forget my 10 (at least) magazines too. Lots of good stuff. Don’t get me diamonds, just get me a Scandinavian interior design magazine! (I didn’t really say that, right?)

Speaking of good stuff, I went a little crazy with taking lots of images of this very soft, romantic, Scandinavian style that everyone loves so much. I found this wonderful style (so much style) in some very special antique stores, Atelier September and Fil de Fer.

I have shared these particular images with Desire To Inspire, my good blogging buddies, because they have featured one of the stores before and I thought they would enjoy them, a fresh look from being IN the stores. I think they enjoyed them so much that they are doing a feature today AND featuring more, and different, images tomorrow! 

What’s missing is the kitchen! The apartment we stayed in, in Copenhagen, definitely had this same romantic style going on. I saw pictures of it online and booked it immediately! I just HAD to stay there. So, here is a kitchen design connection to this romantic Scandinavian style that Desire To Inspire is showing.

Today I will show you the kitchen, tomorrow, I will show you the adjacent breakfast room which will make you fall right over!

Don’t forget to check back with Desire To Inspire tomorrow too, to see the complete look, connected with my images here.  

Here are previous posts in Desire To Inspire…on Scandinavian Style  and more Scandinavian style and good Danish design too. I would encourage you to use the search tool in their blog, but watch the time, you’ll be there all day!

denmark-kitchen-4.jpg denmark-kitchen-8.jpg denmark-kitchen-7.jpg denmark-kitchen-6.jpg denmark-kitchen-9.jpg denmark-kitchen-5.jpg
Goodies & Besties in honor of my birthday tomorrow, i am restocking some closet essentials.  but i could use your help, as i’m pretty sure the j crew ribbed tanks just aren’t cutting it anymore.  Anyone? Favorite tees Favorite tanks Favorite fitted boyfriend jeans and then i need your help with simple black pumps.  i purchased the first ones, despite the fact that the sales guys brought them to me with a “now, I hope you don’t think these are too old ladyish because they are really comfortable.”  not knowing what to make of that, especially after i had been accosted by the supersales girl (think cape with a bid S on it) at the premiere skin kiosk.  two minutes into her demo (who am i to reject some extra miracle serum), she asked, “what are you, like 25?” to which i could not contain my laughter and neither could she really - appreciating her sales effort, but calling her bluff, i walked away with half my face looking 10 years younger, while the other stayed the same.  not really, but moving on.  after trying on several pairs of pumps - and having the sales guys actually ask me,  in complete seriousness, if i had ever walked in pumps before, i went with the “comfortable” option.  but after just now googling them for a photo here, i realize that the name contains FLEX…never a good sign when trying to get a little sexy on for a saturday night event.  Shoot…..HELP! Attilio Giusti Leombruni Patent Flex Pump   the second option that i left behind.  second verse, same as the first, but a little bit sexier?   vince camuto any recommendations for a sexy pump that i can actually walk in, dance in, stand in for four plus hours? Some of my fave local farmers have donated to this amazing workshop on East Asian Medicinal Herbs this afternoon.  And they are pairing this amazing menu with my favorite organic Bonterra wine.  Cue the mouth watering… PLAY Comme des Garçons® Converse® sneakers when i originally wrote a post on this dress, i wanted to shout that everyone should have it in their closet.  hands down, it is the most versatile item in my closet…and, the best part, it’s comfy cozy.  the sweatshirt material (hello?) is disguised by a great, classic cut and pockets, no less.  because the fabric is so non-seasonal, the possibilities are endless.  this was taken in the summer (looking like a drowned rat waiting for a cab in an nyc downpour), but i wore it in the fall with a leather bomber jacket and booties, solo with ballet flats, with a black under tee, tights and boots, with flips, to a cocktail party, to run errands, to work, to a garden party to an evening work event - the below pic was taken before an event at the MOMA - see what i mean?  from the MOMA to a street fest…the list goes on and on. and i’m bringing this all up because i just saw that madewell brought the dress back, but now in short sleeve, which i think is even cuter and hipper.  besties, price per wear is in th negatives….just sayin. madewell sweatshirt dress $118 the perfect little red dress.  exposed zipper.  pleated sleeves.  black skinny belt.  zara kids dress  on sale $19.99!  great for v-tines day or next holiday season. surprisingly, this madewell dress comes pretty close! It’s a shoot week for me which basically means my room is a mess and I’m drinking real cokes, a ton of coffee and pretty much anything and everything.  It’s like I’ve made up some justification that when I’m on a shoot, I have free reign to eat as much junk food as possible.  I eat things that I would never eat on my non-shoot days - and that’s pretty much the other 70% of my life, give or take a percentage or two because I’m not really counting.  A shoot week also means I’m stressed.  No matter how big or small, I never get a good sleep the night before the first day.  So, when it comes to the last day, I need to detox and do something to relieve stress.  And a big stress reliever for me is laughter.  I love SNL, Portlandia and the good sit-coms, but I also love stand-up.  For some reason though, I had never been to Zanies, a comedy club in my neighborhood until a bestie invited me a few months ago.  We were in the audience for the filming of a new reality show on the OWN network called, My Life is a Joke.  You can see me getting out all that stress in this lovely shot of me with my mouth open.  Yep, that’s me, catching my two seconds of fame…and downloading all those worries. Snap.  The comics were really funny - you should check out the show. Thank you thank you thank you for all your votes! Made it into the Top 25 for the second year with your help. xo I am hoping my current obsession with facial products is not a sign of a nearing mid-life, but it’s possible. Considering a friend and I discussed botox (i would never) vs Neocutis Luminiere Biorestorative anti-aging eye cream .5% vs La Prairie (contains caviar - what?) over margs the other day is not a good sign.   However, our convo did take a turn to the Bachelor, so we brought it back down to our early 30’s level again - I mean 20’s.  Actually, I think I’m about 29 in my head. Moving along to my latest product post… I’ve been hitting the gym in the mornings after dropping the kids at school.  Being that we are usually in such a rush, I can barely get dressed, let alone look in the mirror.  And let’s face it, my nightly face wash resolution was over on Jan 2 (I don’t think I wake up on the zombie walk from the couch to bed) and I’ve been walking into the gym sporting leftover makeup face.  Not only is it not pretty, I don’t feel energized.  And after a workout on the “textmill” as my husband as coined it, my face just feels dirty.  So, I’ve established a pre-gym routine to wake up me and my facial pores.   It’s invigorating, makes me feel ready for a workout, and takes two minutes. Step one:  Exfoliate Step two:  Hydrate (combine 2/3 Sea Buckthorn Body Lotion -or any lighter lotion- and 1-2 drops of jojoba oil) The lightness of the sea buckthorn lotion combined with the hydrating oil instantly brightens the face and gives it a pre-workout glow.    More on my post workout facial routine tomorrow. Last 24hrs hours to VOTE for Goodies&Besties for the Circle of Moms top 25 Fashion and Beauty blogs.  It’s been a tight race and I feel like I need to sport some “vote for me” buttons today - 8th grade student council style.  maclaren stroller in central park When I was pregnant and having babies, to say that I fully researched baby products is probably an understatement.  I’ve been meaning to share some of our favorite products; the ones that have stayed with us. MACLAREN TRIUMPH Lasted us six years through disney, d.c., nyc, and our own urban adventures. It would still be with us if I didn’t leave it at the green city market one day. See what happens when I don’t meet my coffee quota?  I know, who loses a stroller?  STOKKE TRIPP TRAPP CHAIR The life chair.  We have two of these in black and they still look great at our kitchen table.  Free of straps and contraptions, the chairs are now in the bid kid position and also comfortable for adults.    REX ROCKER - DWR This folding rocker is perfect for small spaces.  We definitely didn’t have space for the big, cushy recliners that you often see in nurseries, but this did the trick.  Especially after dawning it with a comfy sheepskin throw.  Sleek and modern, it now sits in our family room and it’s my favorite spot.   SHEEPSKIN THROW - DWR i have several of these.  the coziest and can be used as a throw or rug.  i love throwing them over leather couches too for a soft touch.    My dear bestie, fwb, who made cameo appearances here, has just launched a new style blog, Two Way Mirrors.  The concept is genius as it’s a She Said, He said commentary on her fashions and outfits.  The HE is her pretty hilarious husband, but I think he has a rockstar style all his own.  Perhaps they’ll reveal it someday, but for now, the HE comments accompany my morning joe nicely with some good laughs and the SHE comments inspire me to put in that extra little effort.  Must read. via two way mirrors besties, there’s five days left to vote! thanks for all your support to keep me in the top 25 so far! While spending a two hour stint in the Apple store with the kids, only to be told that my phone needed replacing, a trip to the bathroom was inevitable.  Even kids need a break from the iPad table and every kid needs to go to the bathroom at the most inopportune time.  So, down the elevator we went into the clean new iBathrooms.  While waiting on the peanuts, I noticed that the iLighting was not so stellar.  Weird for such a modern, sleek store, I thought.  As I struggled to get the shadow off of my face, I moved my head back and forth only to realize that it it followed me.  It wasn’t the iLighting and the shadows were circles.  Dark, purple circles like that of cinema makeup outlined the base of my eyes.  The circles stayed with me to the next morning and nothing could cover the purplish blue hue.  Scanning my bathroom, my eyes landed on the only product that cured my daughter’s diaper rash three years ago.  Desperato - I grabbed it.  It’s a very think, very white, illuminous-esque paste.  But when applied, it becomes thinner and the bottom line is that it worked.  Three dots of Benefit’s high beam on top and I was good as gold.  Well, maybe silver.   I’m a big fan of finding multiple uses for the products that take up my husband’s shelf on the medicine cabinet.  iSorry, dear. Lucky Magazine published an article in this month’s issue titled:  The 6 Secrets of Wide-Awake Eyes #4:  There’s a vein just above the inner corner of your eyes, almost at the bridge of your nose.  Hit tht with a dab of concealer and your eyes will look significantly more awake.   Now,  I’m not seeing a vein, more like a wrinkle, but I applied on the inner corners/ almost bridge of nose and saw a slight difference.  Will definitely do this from now on.  Especially when my shadow follows me. Need your votes to stay in the Top 25! Thank you for all your blog loving support! xo Did you watch the Golden Globes?  After I had finally gotten the kids to sleep and poured myself a little white wine spritzer (no comments, please), I cozied up on my lambskin rug and went to “my shows” to watch from the beginning.  Unfortunately, my overbooked tivo chose 60 Minutes over the Globes (wha?) so I had to start 45 minutes in.  During commercials, I watched the opening monologue online after seeing on FB that Tina and Amy killed it!  Those are two fabulously funny women! I watch the awards shows to see all the fun dresses, hairstyles, and, of course, who wins what.  But I realized that the major takeaway for me is the inspiration that you get from people who have followed their passion in a competitive field (I’ve sat in commercial casting sessions and seen one hundred people audition for one roll) and the speeches and thank yous that convey this.  Those people are all at the top of their game in their profession. Some have worked harder than others, but most have stories about how they started and had to work for their success.  I can ride on the hope for quite awhile to keep me motivated - it’s the same feeling you get after watching a good movie, one that stays in your mind for awhile, makes you think, and inspires you to take that next step towards something, anything. Two days ago, Huffington Post published this article:  Tina Fey:  ‘30 Rock’ Star’s Success Secret: ‘Say Yes’ “Say yes, and you’ll figure it out afterward” has helped me to be more adventurous. It has definitely helped me be less afraid.  -Tina Fey Simple advice, yet inspiring enough for a good kick to get up and do what you want to do.  Go for it.  The only time is now. via Don’t forget to get your votes in this week! xo La Colombe.  Hands down the best cappuccino in Chicago.  West loop.  Check it. Don’t forget to vote! You can still vote once daily through January 23rd! Happy Friday. Fashion is in the eye of the beholder and can be found in so many unexpected places.  Like your local Cub Scouts store, for example.  I love this chunky survival bracelet and just in case I need to unexpectedly repel down several stories, it has my back.     Description from the website: In an emergency, you can use paracord for lashings, tourniquets, shoelaces, snares, tying splints, or, if you tease out the threads, even fishing lines and sewing threads. This bracelet lets you carry a useful amount at all times. Hey, in my job, you never know what’s going to cross your path. A recent shoot took me to San Antonio for three days.  After the sheer thrill and awe that I actually landed there safely (that may have been boosted by a little Rx assistant), I decided to take in as much as I could in the little time we had in between work commitments.  This resulted in me eating my way through this fine city. First stop:  La Gloria-Street foods of Mexico.  My first and by far the best meal I had in San Antonio. You can just tell by looking at these chips that they are light and crispy.  My co-workers and I split the three taco plates and ended with the elote- the corn on the cob (I think I’ll be trying Rick Bayless’ recipe at home - all summer!)    Next stop was La Fogata for dinner and Margaritas bigger than….well, take a look!  My cute little buddy is a regular size marg on the right.  The texas size marg on the left comes with a frozen beer in it.  That made for a fun client dinner. Next up was Rudy’s REAL TEXAS BBQ for a crew and client lunch on our shoot day.  Served family style with a few loaves of good ‘ole white bread and any kind of fruit flavored pop/soda that you could imagine - icing down in the beverage trough.  My choice was a Pepsi from Mexico - gotta go big and REAL when in Texas.  And RUDY’S BBQ sauce is amazing and a bottle is in my fridge right now!  Merry Christmas to me from me. We ended with an amazing dinner at a steakhouse that’s hidden within an outdoor mall (and quite hard to find mind you after a 14hr day).  But we found Perry’s Steakhouse along with an amazing ice seafood tower, too die for famous pork chop, and yummy banana’s foster.   When I wasn’t eating, I was doing my producing thing in my favorite (and very lived in) kicks and j crew chambray shirt-which for sure is down to a zero price per wear status.  Both perfect for the construction site location backdrops. boots:  charles david (similar, kinda) j crew chambray shirt - a closet must have denim:  gap recylced 1969 always skinny a san antonio souvenir for kringle Still need a ton of votes to stay in the Top 25! "Why do you always wear a hat?" " ‘Cause it fits my head."  (Robert Redford, in “The Horse Whisperer”) You know how I have that rule about no photo being posted of me where my arms looks bigger than my head?  Well, I do and I’ve posted an example here. Often, my sleeveless arm can look the same width as my head.  This happens all the time for two reasons A.  I need to get my arms to the gym and B.  I have a rather small head - I can wear my six year old son’s hats, no problem.  So, when it comes to appearing put together - sort of in the aviator vain - I feel a cute hat can disguise any old outfit instantaneously.  It’s like the icing on a not so great cake - who doesn’t love it?  And because some days call for going incognito or looking put together from the waist up (example:  in the school drop off line when I’m sporting my pj pants).  Who would even think it when sporting one of these lids. As they say, if the hat fits… the winter fedora target $16.99 the plaid hat local chicago designer squast by les the striped hat j crew $24.99 the furt aviator hat zara $14.99 the houndstooth news boy hat ralph lauren $33.74 with these sales, i could be sporting a hat daily! the only thing sofia vergara and i have in common.  but mine is a mood ring from high school that my mom pulled out for me at thanksgiving and sofia’s is several k’s and i’m pretty sure doesn’t reflect moods.  a rummage through the old jewelry box is worth the effort once in awhile.  i’ve been wearing this ring ever since.   and no, it’s not always black.   p.s.  despite my mother’s insistence, this ring wasn’t even mine.  sorry sister. on my nails:  OPI’s Just Spotted the Lizard a perfect sparkly winter blend… Go Irish!  National Championship games don’t to come around very often so it’s time for chips, dip and some football watching tonight.  We’ll be kicking it old school with a Spanish twist on the comfort classic tuna casserole recipe.  Made this over the break with yummy results.  If you are craving a slightly more sophisticated take on this 50’s classic, this recipe for Creamy Tuna Noodle Cazuela from Food & Wine delivers.  While some of my besties are shooping it up in Miami (Delano style - oh how I love those white sheers on the front “porch”), I’ll be on my couch in my new favorite cozy pants (aka my new legs).  J Crew Saturday Pants - did they have to attach a specific day to them?  How about Sunday-Saturday pants.  This is not me below (shocking) - but I have the same shirt and flasses (fake + glasses) - I consider them an accessory - that’s a fancy word for vanity, I guess.  I wish everyone spoke Fancy Nancy.j crew $39.99 plus 30% sale at the store these pants are a must If you like Goodies & Besties, don’t forget to vote for it to be in the Circle of Moms Top 25 Beauty and Fashion blogs of 2013!  You can vote here daily….from all devices.  Just sayin…. New skin.  We are all interested in preserving our skin and being that it is an organ after all, we should be.  Despite this obsession, many nights I still find myself pulling out the Say Yes to Cucumber towelettes and doing a quick once over before collapsing into bed.  And it shows when I wake up with tired, dull skin.  I have found that a little oil can add a little extra sheen, wakes up the skin for the day and goes a long way.  And in keeping with my attempt to keep my medicine cabinet as natural as possible, I’m looking to my kitchen cupboard for oils and other goodies to incorporate into the 2013 routine. Coconut oil:  I’ve been applying before bed for some extra nighttime moisture.  As we get further into winter, the air is getting drier and drier.  So far, this has not cause any breakouts. Jojaba oil:  Combine with moisturizer in the morning for an extra boost to wake up the skin. Lemon juice:  I’m trying this to even skintone - I’ll be back with an update.  And for a healthy and pH balance scalp:  apply to wet hair and leave in for a few minutes before rinsing.  A little tip from my dermatologist. Grapeseed oil + Sugar:  For a nightly lip scrub Camomile Tea:  Rinse into hair after shampooing and before conditioning to enhance highlights.  Because there is nothing that makes me more anxious than sitting at the hair salon for three hours getting highlights.  Between the waiting, heating, and sheer thought of the chemicals penetrating my scalp, the experience is less than relaxing.  Paranoid, I know, but if I can add a few extra weeks between visits, I’ll take it! Cheers to a healthy routine in 2013! Goodies and Besties has been nominated for the Circle of Moms top 10 Fashion & Beauty blogs.  If you feel so inclined, please head over and vote.  You can cote daily and voting ends in 20 days!      I’m not sure how I missed the Maison Martin Margiela collaboration with H&M for which they re-issued their famous duvet jacket.  It’s been sold out for weeks, although a friend of mine just scooped up this precious bundle at a random store in vegas, it looks like ebay is the only shopping spot now for these coveted cozies.  They even come with a grey striped cover.  When you snooze you lose, I guess. 

Goodies & Besties

in honor of my birthday tomorrow, i am restocking some closet essentials.  but i could use your help, as i’m pretty sure the j crew ribbed tanks just aren’t cutting it anymore.  Anyone?

Favorite tees

Favorite tanks

Favorite fitted boyfriend jeans

and then i need your help with simple black pumps.  i purchased the first ones, despite the fact that the sales guys brought them to me with a “now, I hope you don’t think these are too old ladyish because they are really comfortable.”  not knowing what to make of that, especially after i had been accosted by the supersales girl (think cape with a bid S on it) at the premiere skin kiosk.  two minutes into her demo (who am i to reject some extra miracle serum), she asked, “what are you, like 25?” to which i could not contain my laughter and neither could she really - appreciating her sales effort, but calling her bluff, i walked away with half my face looking 10 years younger, while the other stayed the same.  not really, but moving on.  after trying on several pairs of pumps - and having the sales guys actually ask me,  in complete seriousness, if i had ever walked in pumps before, i went with the “comfortable” option.  but after just now googling them for a photo here, i realize that the name contains FLEX…never a good sign when trying to get a little sexy on for a saturday night event.  Shoot…..HELP!

Attilio Giusti Leombruni Patent Flex Pump

 
the second option that i left behind.  second verse, same as the first, but a little bit sexier?  

vince camuto


any recommendations for a sexy pump that i can actually walk in, dance in, stand in for four plus hours?
Some of my fave local farmers have donated to this amazing workshop on East Asian Medicinal Herbs this afternoon.  And they are pairing this amazing menu with my favorite organic Bonterra wine.  Cue the mouth watering…

PLAY Comme des Garçons® Converse® sneakers

when i originally wrote a post on this dress, i wanted to shout that everyone should have it in their closet.  hands down, it is the most versatile item in my closet…and, the best part, it’s comfy cozy.  the sweatshirt material (hello?) is disguised by a great, classic cut and pockets, no less.  because the fabric is so non-seasonal, the possibilities are endless.  this was taken in the summer (looking like a drowned rat waiting for a cab in an nyc downpour), but i wore it in the fall with a leather bomber jacket and booties, solo with ballet flats, with a black under tee, tights and boots, with flips, to a cocktail party, to run errands, to work, to a garden party to an evening work event - the below pic was taken before an event at the MOMA - see what i mean?  from the MOMA to a street fest…the list goes on and on.

and i’m bringing this all up because i just saw that madewell brought the dress back, but now in short sleeve, which i think is even cuter and hipper.  besties, price per wear is in th negatives….just sayin.


madewell sweatshirt dress $118

the perfect little red dress.  exposed zipper.  pleated sleeves.  black skinny belt.

on sale $19.99!  great for v-tines day or next holiday season.

surprisingly, this madewell dress comes pretty close!


It’s a shoot week for me which basically means my room is a mess and I’m drinking real cokes, a ton of coffee and pretty much anything and everything.  It’s like I’ve made up some justification that when I’m on a shoot, I have free reign to eat as much junk food as possible.  I eat things that I would never eat on my non-shoot days - and that’s pretty much the other 70% of my life, give or take a percentage or two because I’m not really counting.  A shoot week also means I’m stressed.  No matter how big or small, I never get a good sleep the night before the first day.  So, when it comes to the last day, I need to detox and do something to relieve stress.  And a big stress reliever for me is laughter.  I love SNL, Portlandia and the good sit-coms, but I also love stand-up.  For some reason though, I had never been to Zanies, a comedy club in my neighborhood until a bestie invited me a few months ago.  We were in the audience for the filming of a new reality show on the OWN network called, My Life is a Joke.  You can see me getting out all that stress in this lovely shot of me with my mouth open.  Yep, that’s me, catching my two seconds of fame…and downloading all those worries. Snap.  The comics were really funny - you should check out the show.
Thank you thank you thank you for all your votes!
Made it into the Top 25 for the second year with your help.
xo
I am hoping my current obsession with facial products is not a sign of a nearing mid-life, but it’s possible. Considering a friend and I discussed botox (i would never) vs Neocutis Luminiere Biorestorative anti-aging eye cream .5% vs La Prairie (contains caviar - what?) over margs the other day is not a good sign.   However, our convo did take a turn to the Bachelor, so we brought it back down to our early 30’s level again - I mean 20’s.  Actually, I think I’m about 29 in my head.

Moving along to my latest product post…
I’ve been hitting the gym in the mornings after dropping the kids at school.  Being that we are usually in such a rush, I can barely get dressed, let alone look in the mirror.  And let’s face it, my nightly face wash resolution was over on Jan 2 (I don’t think I wake up on the zombie walk from the couch to bed) and I’ve been walking into the gym sporting leftover makeup face.  Not only is it not pretty, I don’t feel energized.  And after a workout on the “textmill” as my husband as coined it, my face just feels dirty.  So, I’ve established a pre-gym routine to wake up me and my facial pores.   It’s invigorating, makes me feel ready for a workout, and takes two minutes.

Step one:  Exfoliate

Step two:  Hydrate (combine 2/3 Sea Buckthorn Body Lotion -or any lighter lotion- and 1-2 drops of jojoba oil)
The lightness of the sea buckthorn lotion combined with the hydrating oil instantly brightens the face and gives it a pre-workout glow. 


 

More on my post workout facial routine tomorrow.

Last 24hrs hours to VOTE for Goodies&Besties for the Circle of Moms top 25 Fashion and Beauty blogs.  It’s been a tight race and I feel like I need to sport some “vote for me” buttons today - 8th grade student council style. 


maclaren stroller in central park




When I was pregnant and having babies, to say that I fully researched baby products is probably an understatement.  I’ve been meaning to share some of our favorite products; the ones that have stayed with us.

MACLAREN TRIUMPH
Lasted us six years through disney, d.c., nyc, and our own urban adventures.
It would still be with us if I didn’t leave it at the green city market one day.
See what happens when I don’t meet my coffee quota?  I know, who loses a stroller?


 STOKKE TRIPP TRAPP CHAIR
The life chair.  We have two of these in black and they still look great at our kitchen table. 
Free of straps and contraptions, the chairs are now in the bid kid position and also comfortable for adults. 

 


REX ROCKER - DWR
This folding rocker is perfect for small spaces.  We definitely didn’t have space for the big, cushy recliners that you often see in nurseries, but this did the trick.  Especially after dawning it with a comfy sheepskin throw.  Sleek and modern, it now sits in our family room and it’s my favorite spot.


SHEEPSKIN THROW - DWR
i have several of these.  the coziest and can be used as a throw or rug.  i love throwing them over leather couches too for a soft touch.




  

My dear bestie, fwb, who made cameo appearances here, has just launched a new style blog, Two Way Mirrors.  The concept is genius as it’s a She Said, He said commentary on her fashions and outfits.  The HE is her pretty hilarious husband, but I think he has a rockstar style all his own.  Perhaps they’ll reveal it someday, but for now, the HE comments accompany my morning joe nicely with some good laughs and the SHE comments inspire me to put in that extra little effort.  Must read. via two way mirrors
besties, there’s five days left to vote!

thanks for all your support to keep me in the top 25 so far!


While spending a two hour stint in the Apple store with the kids, only to be told that my phone needed replacing, a trip to the bathroom was inevitable.  Even kids need a break from the iPad table and every kid needs to go to the bathroom at the most inopportune time.  So, down the elevator we went into the clean new iBathrooms.  While waiting on the peanuts, I noticed that the iLighting was not so stellar.  Weird for such a modern, sleek store, I thought.  As I struggled to get the shadow off of my face, I moved my head back and forth only to realize that it it followed me.  It wasn’t the iLighting and the shadows were circles.  Dark, purple circles like that of cinema makeup outlined the base of my eyes.  The circles stayed with me to the next morning and nothing could cover the purplish blue hue.  Scanning my bathroom, my eyes landed on the only product that cured my daughter’s diaper rash three years ago.  Desperato - I grabbed it.  It’s a very think, very white, illuminous-esque paste.  But when applied, it becomes thinner and the bottom line is that it worked.  Three dots of Benefit’s high beam on top and I was good as gold.  Well, maybe silver.   I’m a big fan of finding multiple uses for the products that take up my husband’s shelf on the medicine cabinet.  iSorry, dear.

Lucky Magazine published an article in this month’s issue titled: 

The 6 Secrets of Wide-Awake Eyes

#4:  There’s a vein just above the inner corner of your eyes, almost at the bridge of your nose.  Hit tht with a dab of concealer and your eyes will look significantly more awake.  

Now,  I’m not seeing a vein, more like a wrinkle, but I applied on the inner corners/ almost bridge of nose and saw a slight difference.  Will definitely do this from now on.  Especially when my shadow follows me.




Need your votes to stay in the Top 25!
Thank you for all your blog loving support!
xo

Did you watch the Golden Globes?  After I had finally gotten the kids to sleep and poured myself a little white wine spritzer (no comments, please), I cozied up on my lambskin rug and went to “my shows” to watch from the beginning.  Unfortunately, my overbooked tivo chose 60 Minutes over the Globes (wha?) so I had to start 45 minutes in.  During commercials, I watched the opening monologue online after seeing on FB that Tina and Amy killed it!  Those are two fabulously funny women!

I watch the awards shows to see all the fun dresses, hairstyles, and, of course, who wins what.  But I realized that the major takeaway for me is the inspiration that you get from people who have followed their passion in a competitive field (I’ve sat in commercial casting sessions and seen one hundred people audition for one roll) and the speeches and thank yous that convey this.  Those people are all at the top of their game in their profession. Some have worked harder than others, but most have stories about how they started and had to work for their success.  I can ride on the hope for quite awhile to keep me motivated - it’s the same feeling you get after watching a good movie, one that stays in your mind for awhile, makes you think, and inspires you to take that next step towards something, anything.

Two days ago, Huffington Post published this article:  Tina Fey:  ‘30 Rock’ Star’s Success Secret: ‘Say Yes’

“Say yes, and you’ll figure it out afterward” has helped me to be more adventurous. It has definitely helped me be less afraid.  -Tina Fe
y

Simple advice, yet inspiring enough for a good kick to get up and do what you want to do.  Go for it.  The only time is now.

via
Don’t forget to get your votes in this week!
xo

La Colombe.  Hands down the best cappuccino in Chicago.  West loop.  Check it.

Don’t forget to vote! You can still vote once daily through January 23rd!
Happy Friday.

Fashion is in the eye of the beholder and can be found in so many unexpected places.  Like your local Cub Scouts store, for example.  I love this chunky survival bracelet and just in case I need to unexpectedly repel down several stories, it has my back. 
  
Description from the website:
In an emergency, you can use paracord for lashings, tourniquets, shoelaces, snares, tying splints, or, if you tease out the threads, even fishing lines and sewing threads. This bracelet lets you carry a useful amount at all times.

Hey, in my job, you never know what’s going to cross your path.




A recent shoot took me to San Antonio for three days.  After the sheer thrill and awe that I actually landed there safely (that may have been boosted by a little Rx assistant), I decided to take in as much as I could in the little time we had in between work commitments.  This resulted in me eating my way through this fine city.

First stop:  La Gloria-Street foods of Mexico.  My first and by far the best meal I had in San Antonio. You can just tell by looking at these chips that they are light and crispy.  My co-workers and I split the three taco plates and ended with the elote- the corn on the cob (I think I’ll be trying Rick Bayless’ recipe at home - all summer!) 



Next stop was La Fogata for dinner and Margaritas bigger than….well, take a look!  My cute little buddy is a regular size marg on the right.  The texas size marg on the left comes with a frozen beer in it.  That made for a fun client dinner.

Next up was Rudy’s REAL TEXAS BBQ for a crew and client lunch on our shoot day.  Served family style with a few loaves of good ‘ole white bread and any kind of fruit flavored pop/soda that you could imagine - icing down in the beverage trough.  My choice was a Pepsi from Mexico - gotta go big and REAL when in Texas.  And RUDY’S BBQ sauce is amazing and a bottle is in my fridge right now!  Merry Christmas to me from me.


We ended with an amazing dinner at a steakhouse that’s hidden within an outdoor mall (and quite hard to find mind you after a 14hr day).  But we found Perry’s Steakhouse along with an amazing ice seafood tower, too die for famous pork chop, and yummy banana’s foster.  

When I wasn’t eating, I was doing my producing thing in my favorite (and very lived in) kicks and j crew chambray shirt-which for sure is down to a zero price per wear status.  Both perfect for the construction site location backdrops.

boots:  charles david (similar, kinda)
j crew chambray shirt - a closet must have



a san antonio souvenir for kringle


Still need a ton of votes to stay in the Top 25!
"Why do you always wear a hat?" " ‘Cause it fits my head." 
(Robert Redford, in “The Horse Whisperer”)

You know how I have that rule about no photo being posted of me where my arms looks bigger than my head?  Well, I do and I’ve posted an example here. Often, my sleeveless arm can look the same width as my head.  This happens all the time for two reasons A.  I need to get my arms to the gym and B.  I have a rather small head - I can wear my six year old son’s hats, no problem.  So, when it comes to appearing put together - sort of in the aviator vain - I feel a cute hat can disguise any old outfit instantaneously.  It’s like the icing on a not so great cake - who doesn’t love it?  And because some days call for going incognito or looking put together from the waist up (example:  in the school drop off line when I’m sporting my pj pants).  Who would even think it when sporting one of these lids. As they say, if the hat fits…


the winter fedora
target $16.99 the plaid hat local chicago designer squast by les
the striped hat
j crew $24.99

the furt aviator hat

zara $14.99
the houndstooth news boy hat
ralph lauren $33.74

with these sales, i could be sporting a hat daily!



the only thing sofia vergara and i have in common.  but mine is a mood ring from high school that my mom pulled out for me at thanksgiving and sofia’s is several k’s and i’m pretty sure doesn’t reflect moods.  a rummage through the old jewelry box is worth the effort once in awhile.  i’ve been wearing this ring ever since.   and no, it’s not always black.

p.s.  despite my mother’s insistence, this ring wasn’t even mine.  sorry sister.

on my nails:  OPI’s Just Spotted the Lizard
a perfect sparkly winter blend…





Go Irish!  National Championship games don’t to come around very often so it’s time for chips, dip and some football watching tonight.  We’ll be kicking it old school with a Spanish twist on the comfort classic tuna casserole recipe.  Made this over the break with yummy results.  If you are craving a slightly more sophisticated take on this 50’s classic, this recipe for Creamy Tuna Noodle Cazuela from Food & Wine delivers. 

While some of my besties are shooping it up in Miami (Delano style - oh how I love those white sheers on the front “porch”), I’ll be on my couch in my new favorite cozy pants (aka my new legs).  J Crew Saturday Pants - did they have to attach a specific day to them?  How about Sunday-Saturday pants.  This is not me below (shocking) - but I have the same shirt and flasses (fake + glasses) - I consider them an accessory - that’s a fancy word for vanity, I guess.  I wish everyone spoke Fancy Nancy.j crew $39.99 plus 30% sale at the store
these pants are a must

If you like Goodies & Besties, don’t forget to vote for it to be in the Circle of Moms Top 25 Beauty and Fashion blogs of 2013!  You can vote here daily….from all devices.  Just sayin….


New skin.  We are all interested in preserving our skin and being that it is an organ after all, we should be.  Despite this obsession, many nights I still find myself pulling out the Say Yes to Cucumber towelettes and doing a quick once over before collapsing into bed.  And it shows when I wake up with tired, dull skin.  I have found that a little oil can add a little extra sheen, wakes up the skin for the day and goes a long way.  And in keeping with my attempt to keep my medicine cabinet as natural as possible, I’m looking to my kitchen cupboard for oils and other goodies to incorporate into the 2013 routine.


Coconut oil:  I’ve been applying before bed for some extra nighttime moisture.  As we get further into winter, the air is getting drier and drier.  So far, this has not cause any breakouts.

Jojaba oil:  Combine with moisturizer in the morning for an extra boost to wake up the skin.

Lemon juice:  I’m trying this to even skintone - I’ll be back with an update.  And for a healthy and pH balance scalp:  apply to wet hair and leave in for a few minutes before rinsing.  A little tip from my dermatologist.

Grapeseed oil + Sugar:  For a nightly lip scrub

Camomile Tea:  Rinse into hair after shampooing and before conditioning to enhance highlights. 

Because there is nothing that makes me more anxious than sitting at the hair salon for three hours getting highlights.  Between the waiting, heating, and sheer thought of the chemicals penetrating my scalp, the experience is less than relaxing.  Paranoid, I know, but if I can add a few extra weeks between visits, I’ll take it!

Cheers to a healthy routine in 2013!

Goodies and Besties has been nominated for the Circle of Moms top 10 Fashion & Beauty blogs.  If you feel so inclined, please head over and vote.  You can cote daily and voting ends in 20 days!


     I’m not sure how I missed the Maison Martin Margiela
collaboration with H&M for which they re-issued their famous duvet jacket.  It’s been sold out for weeks, although a friend of mine just scooped up this precious bundle at a random store in vegas, it looks like ebay is the only shopping spot now for these coveted cozies.  They even come with a grey striped cover.  When you snooze you lose, I guess. 



Lauren Scruggs Reveals New Prosthetic Eye and Hand | ABC News … ABC News’ Ryan Owens reports: Nearly one year after model and fashion blogger Lauren Scruggs walked off an airplane and into a spinning propeller, she says she still can’t fully explain how it happened. "I remember the sky was black; we were on the dark side of the plane," Scruggs, 24, writes in her memoir to be released later this month. “It was December 3, 2011, and after that split second, I remember absolutely nothing.” Scruggs had just landed after viewing Christmas lights from above on Dec. 3 when she walked into a moving airplane propeller at a private airport north of Dallas. The propeller sliced off her hand and doctors were forced to remove her left eye weeks later. The pilot, Curt Richmond, left the propeller running while Scruggs left the plane. PHOTOS: Lauren Scruggs’ Remarkable Recovery Scruggs was conscious, breathing and “somewhat” responsive but bleeding badly, according to the 911 call. She was rushed to the hospital, fighting for her life. In an instant, Scruggs’ world, and her family’s, changed forever. "I was able to hold her," Scruggs’ mom, Cheryl Scruggs, told " Good Morning America" just days later about that harrowing night. "That’s the toughest part of it all, just seeing her there waiting for the help." WATCH: Lauren Scruggs’ Parents Speak In the months after the accident, Scruggs underwent intensive physical therapy to relearn the basics - how to walk, talk, use a stationary bike, even dress herself - and pick up the pieces of her life. She eventually resumed writing fashion commentary on her LoLo website, shared photos of a family ski vacation in Colorado last year and, this week, took to Twitter to show off her prosthetics to replace the left hand and left eye she lost. "Doing some filming action. Long day," she tweeted, along with a photo of herself and friend Shannon Yoachum. Scruggs smiles now, but devotes one chapter of her memoir to her difficult recovery, including everything from the awkward painting and fitting of her fake eye to her own self-consciousness about her new prosthetic arm. "I don’t know why this is so hard, I said," she writes. "Soldiers are dying in Afghanistan right now and I’m too chicken to do this one little thing.” Scruggs reached a legal settlement with the insurance company for the pilot and the plane’s owner last March, a representative for her attorney told ABC News at the time. Though he would not comment on details of the agreement, it is rumored to be more than $1 million. Scruggs’ memoir, “Still Lolo: The Inspiring True Story,” goes on sale Nov. 15. In the end, she says, she believes that her split-second encounter with the propeller blade may have made her a deeper, more introspective person. "I came to see how there was so much more to my life than being worried about how I looked," she writes. ABC News’ Lauren Sher contributed to this report. Also Read

Lauren Scruggs Reveals New Prosthetic Eye and Hand | ABC News …

ABC News’ Ryan Owens reports:

Nearly one year after model and fashion blogger Lauren Scruggs walked off an airplane and into a spinning propeller, she says she still can’t fully explain how it happened.

"I remember the sky was black; we were on the dark side of the plane," Scruggs, 24, writes in her memoir to be released later this month. “It was December 3, 2011, and after that split second, I remember absolutely nothing.”

Scruggs had just landed after viewing Christmas lights from above on Dec. 3 when she walked into a moving airplane propeller at a private airport north of Dallas. The propeller sliced off her hand and doctors were forced to remove her left eye weeks later. The pilot, Curt Richmond, left the propeller running while Scruggs left the plane.

PHOTOS: Lauren Scruggs’ Remarkable Recovery

Scruggs was conscious, breathing and “somewhat” responsive but bleeding badly, according to the 911 call. She was rushed to the hospital, fighting for her life. In an instant, Scruggs’ world, and her family’s, changed forever.

"I was able to hold her," Scruggs’ mom, Cheryl Scruggs, told " Good Morning America" just days later about that harrowing night. "That’s the toughest part of it all, just seeing her there waiting for the help."

WATCH: Lauren Scruggs’ Parents Speak

In the months after the accident, Scruggs underwent intensive physical therapy to relearn the basics - how to walk, talk, use a stationary bike, even dress herself - and pick up the pieces of her life. She eventually resumed writing fashion commentary on her LoLo website, shared photos of a family ski vacation in Colorado last year and, this week, took to Twitter to show off her prosthetics to replace the left hand and left eye she lost.

"Doing some filming action. Long day," she tweeted, along with a photo of herself and friend Shannon Yoachum.

Scruggs smiles now, but devotes one chapter of her memoir to her difficult recovery, including everything from the awkward painting and fitting of her fake eye to her own self-consciousness about her new prosthetic arm.

"I don’t know why this is so hard, I said," she writes. "Soldiers are dying in Afghanistan right now and I’m too chicken to do this one little thing.”

Scruggs reached a legal settlement with the insurance company for the pilot and the plane’s owner last March, a representative for her attorney told ABC News at the time. Though he would not comment on details of the agreement, it is rumored to be more than $1 million.

Scruggs’ memoir, “Still Lolo: The Inspiring True Story,” goes on sale Nov. 15. In the end, she says, she believes that her split-second encounter with the propeller blade may have made her a deeper, more introspective person.

"I came to see how there was so much more to my life than being worried about how I looked," she writes.

ABC News’ Lauren Sher contributed to this report.

Also Read
kare11.com | Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN Latest Headlines Ravens hold off 49ers to win Super Bowl Capping a pretty perfect postseason, Joe Flacco completed 22 of 33 passes for … Officials: Breaker cut power to Superdome Officials of the utility company supplying power to the Superdome say the Super … Keys sings national anthem on piano at Super Bowl Alicia Keys performed a lounge-y, piano-tinged - and live - version of the …

kare11.com | Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN

Latest Headlines

Feb 3, 2013; New Orleans, LA, USA; Baltimore Ravens quarterback Joe Flacco (5) celebrates winning Super Bowl XLVII against the San Francisco 49ers at the Mercedes-Benz Superdome. Mandatory Credit: Crystal LoGiudice-USA TODAY Sports

Ravens hold off 49ers to win Super Bowl

Capping a pretty perfect postseason, Joe Flacco completed 22 of 33 passes for …

Feb 3, 2013; New Orleans, LA, USA; A policeman guard the field during the third quarter blackout in Super Bowl XLVII between the San Francisco 49ers and the Baltimore Ravens at the Mercedes-Benz Superdome. Mandatory Credit: Matthew Emmons-USA TODAY Sports

Officials: Breaker cut power to Superdome

Officials of the utility company supplying power to the Superdome say the Super …

Feb 3, 2013; New Orleans, LA, USA; Recording artist Alicia Keys sings the national anthem prior to Super Bowl XLVII between the San Francisco 49ers and the Baltimore Ravens at the Mercedes-Benz Superdome. Mandatory Credit: Crystal LoGiudice-USA TODAY Sports

Keys sings national anthem on piano at Super Bowl

Alicia Keys performed a lounge-y, piano-tinged - and live - version of the …